Cambridge Latin Course
Stage 22 - Defixio

Vocabulary

adeptus - amor - aureus - avidē - caelum - dēcipere - dīrus - dissentīre - ēligere - exitium - fundere - hostis - iactāre - incipere - ingressus - inicere - lacrima - minimus - molestus - monēre - parcere - precātus - prūdentia - quantus - quō modō - tardus - tūtus - verbum - virtūs - vītō

Study these words at QUIA and QUIZLET

Morphology

A. Formation of ADVERBS

Most adjectives of the third declension can become adverbs by adding -ter to the stem.

celer becomes celeriter, swiftly.

fortis becomes fortiter, bravely.

brevis becomes breviter, briefly, shortly.

diligēns becomes diligenter, carefully, diligently.

levis becomes leviter, lightly, softly.

B. Review the STEM CHANGES indicating the PERFECT TENSE

V - S - U - X

dissentit → dissēnsit
iactat → iactāvit
monet → monuit
vītat → vītāvit
cēlat → cēlāvit
extrahit → extraxit
iubet → iussit


VOWEL CHANGE or VOWEL LENGTHENING

dēcipit → dēcēpit
ēligit → ēlēgit
fundit → fūdit (n.b. the -n- is lost)
incipit → incēpit
inicit → iniēcit
adiuvat → adiūvit
dēicit → dēiēcit
suscipit → suscēpit


REDUPLICATION

parcit → pepercit


NO CHANGE

ascendit → ascendit


Syntax

A. The Perfect ACTIVE Participle

For a few special verbs, called deponent verbs, the perfect participle is active instead of passive.

The perfect ACTIVE participle is the third principle part of a deponent verb. It is an adjective of the first and second declension.

Translation: "Having __________-ed.

Examples:

    ingressus = having entered

    cōnspicātus = having caught sight of

    precātus = having prayed

    regressus = having returned

    locūtus = having spoken

    secūtus = having followed

B. Two New Uses of the Genitive Case

1. The Partitive Genitive (or Genitive of the Whole) A noun in the genitive case may represent the whole from which only a part is taken.

    plūs aquae = more (of) water

    satis vinī = enough (of) wine

    nimium temporis = too much (of) time

N.B. This construction is commonly used with the following neuter singular words:     tantum, only
    multum, much
    paulum, little
    satis, enough
    hoc, this
    quantum, as (how much)
    plūs, more
    minus, less
    parum, too little
    aliquantum, somewhat
    plūrimum, most
    minimum, least
    nihil, nothing
    idem, the same
    quod, which
    quid, what

2. The Genitive of Description (or Genitive of Quality) An adjective and a noun together in the genitive case may be used to describe another noun.

    vir magnae auctōritātis, a man of great influence.

    rēgīna summae prūdentiae, a queen of the greatest practical wisdom.

    mīlitēs summae virtūtis, soldiers of the highest courage.

    puer ingeniī parvī, a boy of little natural ability.



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