Cambridge Latin Course
Stage 21 - Aquae Sulis


ā, ab - adiuvāre - annus - ascendere - barbarus - cēlāre - circum - cōnfīdere - dēicere - dūrus - efficere - extrahere - fōns - gravis - haruspex - hōra - īnfēlīx - iubēre - morbus - nōnnūllī - nūper - occupātus - oppidum - perītus - plēnus - plūs - pretium - sapiēns - suscipere - unde

Study these words at QUIA and QUIZLET   Cambridge Stage 21


A. Formation of ADVERBS

Most adjectives of the first and second declension can become adverbs by adding to the stem.

laetus, -a, -um becomes laetē, happily.

perītus, -a, -um becomes perītē, skillfully.

minimus, -a, -um becomes minimē, in the least way, hardly.

stultus, -a, -um becomes stultē, stupidly.

pulcherrimus, -a, -um becomes pulcherrimē, very beautifully.

B. Review the NOMINATIVE, GENITIVE, and ACCUSATIVE of Declensions 1-3

First Declension: STATUA, -AE (f)

Case Singular Plural
Nominative statua statuae
Genitive statuae statuārum
Accusative statuam statuās

Second Declension: MEDICUS, -Ī (m)

Case Singular Plural
Nominative medicus medicī
Genitive medicī medicōrum
Accusative medicum medicōs

Third Declension: VŌX, VŌIS (f)

Case Singular Plural
Nominative vōx vōcēs
Genitive vōcis vōcum
Accusative vōcem vōcēs


A. The Perfect Passive Participle

A participle is a verbal adjective, i.e. an adjective that comes from a verb.

The perfect passive participle is the fourth principle part of the verb, sometimes called the supine, sometimes the PPP. It is an adjective of the first and second declension.

Translation: "Having been __________-ed.


    laudātus = having been praised

    cēlātus = having been hidden

    extractus = having been pulled out

    amātus = having been loved

    vīsus = having been seen

B. The Relative Tense of Participles

The Perfect Passive Participles describes an action which happened prior to that of the main verb.


    Puer, ā patre vīsus, ex vīllā discēdit. The boy, who has been seen by his father, leaves the house.

    Puer, ā patre vīsus, ex vīllā discessit. The boy, who had been seen by his father, left the house.

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