Cambridge Latin Course
Stage 07 - Cēna

Vocabulary

cēnat:
     cēnāvit
centuriō
cōnspicit:
     cōnspexit
cum
facit:
     fēcit
heri
ingēns
intellegit:
     intellēxit
lacrimat:
     lacrimāvit
mortuus
nārrat:
     nārrāvit
necat:
     necāvit
nihil
omnis
parat:
     parāvit
pestis
pōculum
prōcēdit:
     prōcessit
prope
pulcher
rogat:
     rogāvit
tacitē
tamen
terret:
     terruit
umbra
valdē

Study these words at QUIA and QUIZLET


Morphology

A. Frequently in Latin the subject is understood from the previous sentence. In such cases, a pronoun is not necessary, as the subject is indicated by the personal ending of the verb.

Examples:

1. Coquus in culīnā labōrābat. Cēnam parāvit.
The cook was working in the kitchen. (He) prepared the food.

2. Domina in tricliniō cēnābat. Porcum gustāvit.
The lady was dining in the triclinium. (She) tasted the pork.

3. Puellae in hortō lūdēbant. Umbram cōnspexērunt.
The girls were playing in the garden. (They) saw a ghost.

N.B. See About the Language I, p. 107.


B. Notice how the verbs in this chapter change their stem to indicate a shift into the perfect tense.

Examples:

1. The most common stem changes are v-s-u-x.

     cēnat → cēnāvit
     cōnspicit → cōnspexit
     intellegit → intellēxit
     lacrimat → lacrimāvit
     nārrat → nārrāvit
     necat → necāvit
     parat → parāvit
     prōcēdit → prōcessit
     rogat → rogāvit
     terret → terruit

2. Other stem changes include the lengthening of a vowel, a change in the vowel, or doubling of a consonant sound (called reduplication).

     facit → fēcit
     capit → cēpit
     dat → dedit

3. For some verbs, there is no change in the stem for the perfect tense.

     contendit → contendit

For these verb, only the context will tell you whether it is present or perfect tense.

N.B. See About the Language II, p. 111.


Syntax

We have seen three tenses: The present, the imperfect, and the perfect. Note the following:

1. Present Tense: Present Stem + Personal Ending

     a. The present stem comes from the infinitive. It is found by taking the -re from the infinitive form.
     b. The personal endings are -ō, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt.

2. Imperfect Tense: Present Stem + bā + Personal Ending

     a. After the imperfect tense sign -bā-, you will find the personal endings -m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt
     b. So, look for -bam, -bās, -bat, -bāmus, -bātis, -bant.

3. Perfect Tense: Perfect Stem + Perfect Personal Ending

     a. Look for the stem changes V-S-U-X. These are the most common perfect stem changes, illustrated in bold below.


Present
Imperfect
Perfect
ambulat
he walks
ambulābat
he was walking
ambulāvit
he walked
terret
he terrifies
terrēbat
he was terrifying
terruit
he terrified
cōnspicit
he catches sight of
cōnspiciēbat
he was catching sight of
cōnspexit
he caught sight of
prōcēdit
he goes forward
prōcēdēbat
he was going forward
prōcessit
he went forward

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