Cambridge Latin Course
Stage 3 - Negōtium

Vocabulary

ad
bibit
circumspectat
clāmat
ecce!
et
exit
exspectat
forum
iānua
īrātus
leō
magnus
nāvis
nōn
portat
respondet
rīdet
salvē!
surgit
taberna
videt
vīlla
vīnum
Study these words at QUIA and QUIZLET

Morphology

At this early stage we are presented with three types of nouns. 

First Declension

Subject -a

culīna

via

ancilla

cēna

mēnsa

toga

tunica

iānua

taberna

Object -am

culīnam

viam

ancillam

cēnam

mēnsam

togam

tunicam

iānuam

tabernam

Third Declension

Subject  --

canis

māter

pater

mercātor

leō

nāvis

Object  -em

canem

mātrem

patrem

mercātōrem

leōnem

nāvem

Second Declension

Subject -us

coquus

fīlius

hortus

servus

amīcus

cibus

dominus

Object -um

coquum

fīlium

hortum

servum

amīcum

cibum

dominum


Syntax

English is an SVO language, meaning that the natural order of words in a sentence is subject, verb, object. If the word order is changed, so is the meaning of the sentence.

The slave waits for his master.

The master waits for his slave.

By contrast, Latin is generally an SOV language, meaning that the natural order of words in a sentence is subject, object, verb. Latin relies on the case ending of the noun, not on word order, to determine how it is used. Therefore, the word order in Latin can be used to put emphasis on a certain word, yet still keep the same basic meaning. 

dominus servum exspectat.

servum dominus exspectat.

exspectat servum dominus.

The master waits for his slave.

The master waits for his slave.

The master waits for his slave.

Return from Stage 03 Negōtium to Cambridge Latin Course

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