1. Singular direct objects end in -am, -um, or -em. Which ending is used depends on which type of noun it is. In this book, it should be emphasized, there are three kinds of nouns.
Type one: Subject = -a, object = -am, after in = -ā
ancilla togam in mēnsā videt.
The slave woman sees a toga on the table.
Type Two: Subject = -us, object = -um, after in = -ō
dominus cibum in hortō gustat.
The master tastes food in the garden.
Type Three: Subject = ----, object = -em, after in= -e
mercātor canem in urbe timet.
The merchant fears the dog in the city.
N.B. The subject form of the third type of noun has many possible forms. Nouns of this type include: mercātor, māter, pater, and canis.
A noun used as the subject of a verb is said to be in the nominative case. A noun used as the direct object of a verb is said to be in the accusative case. A noun used after the preposition in is said to be in the ablative case.
Nouns of Type One:
Nouns of Type Two:
Nouns of Type Three: