Lingua Latina 15: Magister et Discipuli

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 15. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

Lectio Prima
Lines 1-40

When Marcus goes to school we meet Diodorus, a severe Greek school teacher accustumed to punishing his students with the rod. Sextus arrives first and shows Diodorus the proper respect of standing to greet him. Titus arrives next, knocking on the door before entering and greeting his teacher properly. Diodorus begins class without Marcus and Quintus.

1. Personal Endings: 1st and 2nd Person Singular

So far we have seen verbs of the 3rd person only. The conversation between Diodorus, Sextus, and Titus introduces us to verbs of the 1st and 2nd person singular, i.e. whose subjects are I and you.

Memorize these forms of the verbs HABĒRE and ESSE:

Person habēre
to have
esse
to be
Personal Endings
ego
I
habeō
I have
sum
I am
, -m

you
habēs
you have
es
you are
-s
is, ea, id
he, she,it
habet
he/she/it has
est
he/she/it is
-t

N.B. Verbs ending in or -m are first person singular, having the subject I. Verbs ending in -s are second person singular, having the subject you.

2. The Present Participle (Continued):

Find the following participles in the text. Take note of what they mean and how they are used:

   Line 1: ferēns - bringing, carrying

   Line 14: intrāns - entering

   Line 14: sedentem - sitting

   Line 15: surgēns - rising

N.B. The present participle is an adjective of the 3rd declension. For example, intrāns declines as follows:

Case Singular Plural
Nom. intrāns (m, f, n) intrantēs (m, f)
intrantia (n)
Gen. intrantis (m, f, n) intrantium (m, f, n)
Dat. intrantī (m, f, n) intrantibus (m, f, n)
Acc. intrantem (m, f)
intrāns (n)
intrantēs (m, f)
intrantia (n)
Abl. intrante, -ī (m, f, n) intrantibus (m, f, n)

3. The Relative Tense of Participles:

The tense of a participle is not independent, but rather relative to the main action of the sentence. A present participle, for example, describes an action simultaneous to the main verb. That is, it describes an ongoing action.

Exempla:
Māter fīlium salūtāns ātrium intrat.
The mother enters the atrium greeting her son.
The mother enters the atrium as she greets her son.

Fīlius mātrem intrantem salūtat.
The son greets his entering mother.
The son greets his mother as she enters.

4. The Accusative of Exclamation:

The accusative case is used in exclamations. Think of this construction as the shouting out of a direct object, the verb supressed or forgotten.

Exempla:

   mē miserum! miserable me!

   mē caecum! blind me!

   ō fortūnātam rempublicam! o fortunate republic!

   puerōs improbōs! bad boys!

   puellās improbās! bad girls!

   pāstōrēs bonōs! good shepherds

   rēs novās! revolution!

   quam fēminam! what a woman!

Lectio Altera
Lines 41-95
Marcus arrives late to school. He neither knocks before entering nor greets the teacher. He then argues that Sextus and Titus didn't knock or say hello when they arrived. Diodorus punishes Marcus with the rod. Marcus cannot sit down. Marcus and Titus fight over a book and an apple. Diodorus threatens to punish Marcus again.

5. 1. Personal Endings - 1st and 2nd Person Plural:

In part one of this chapter we saw singular 1st and 2nd person verbs. Part two introduces us to verbs of the 1st and 2nd person plural, i.e. whose subjects are we and you all.

Memorize these forms of the verbs VIDĒRE and VENĪRE:

Person vidēre
to see
venīre
to come
Personal Endings
nōs
we
vidēmus
we see
venīmus
we come
-mus
vōs
you all
vidētis
you all see
venītis
you all come
-tis
eī, eae, ea
they
vident
they see
veniunt
they come
-nt

N.B. Verbs ending in -mus are first person plural, having the subject we. Verbs ending in -tis are second person plural, having the subject you all.

6. POSSUM, POTES, & POTEST:

Person esse
to be
posse
to be able
Personal Endings
ego
I
sum
I am
possum
I am able
-m

you
es
you are
potes
you are able
-s
is, ea, id
he, she,it
est
he/she/it is
potest
he/she/it is able
-t

N.B. The irregular verb possum is a compound of sum, and shares all irregular forms.

7. Compounds of IRE & DARE:

   eō, īre, īvī, ītum = to go
   abeō, abīre, abīvī, abītum = to go away
   adeō, adīre, adīvī, adītum = to go toward
   redeō, redīre, redīvī, redītum = to go back, return
   trānseō, trānsīre, trānsīvī, trānsītum = to go across

   dō, dāre, dedī, dātus = to give
   condō, condere, condidī, conditus = to found, establish
   reddō, reddere, reddidī, redditus = to give back, return
   prōdō, prōdere, prōdidī, prōditus = to put forth, exhibit, reveal
   trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus = to hand over; surrender

8. CONVENIT - Another Impersonal Verb:

Puerō fortī lacrimāre nōn convenit.
To cry is not suitable to a brave boy.

Magistrum comiter salūtāre discipulō convenit.
It is appropriate for a student to greet his teacher kindly.

Nōn convenit magistrō discipulōs verberāre.
It is not fitting for a teacher to beat students.

9. DOMĪ - The Locative Case (Reviewed):

In addition to the proper names of cities, towns, and small islands, the locative case is used for the following nouns:
domī = at home
rūrī = in the countryside
humī = on the ground

N.B. Remember the phrase domī mīlitiaeque, at home and in the military.


Likewise, with these nouns no preposition is used to indicate to or from:

domum = (to) home
rūs = to the countryside
humum = to the ground


domō = from home
rūre = from the countryside
humō = from the ground


Lectio Tertia
Lines 96-128
The boys fall asleep listening to Diodorus read aloud. When he catches them asleep, they all vociferously deny it. He beats them all as punishment. Then, since they are in school, and not at home in their little beds, Diodorus compels the students to stand. This way they will not to fall asleep again, while he finishes reading the lesson.

10. POSSUMUS, POTESTIS, & POSSUNT:

Person esse
to be
posse
to be able
Personal Endings
nōs
we
sumus
we are
possumus
we are able
-mus
vōs
you all
estis
you all are
potestis
you all are able
-tis
eī, eae, ea
they
sunt
they are
possunt
they are able
-nt

11. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina Chapter 15

Also get a printable list of vocabulary for this chapter.


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