Lingua Latina 11: Corpus Humanum

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 11. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

Lectio Prima
Lines 1-41

The human body is described. Syra suffers from poor hearing, and this is used as a device to introduce indirect statement. Quintus lies sick in bed. Aemilia offers him an apple and a cup of water. He is not able to eat the apple, but he drinks the water. Quintus closes his eyes and sleeps.

1. Memorize These 3rd-Declension Neuter Nouns:

corpus, corporis; caput, capitis; crūs, crūris; ōs, ōris

Case Singular Plural
Nominative corpus corpora
Accusative corpus corpora
Genitive corporis corporum
Dative corporī corporibus
Ablative corpore corporibus

Case Singular Plural
Nominative caput capita
Accusative caput capita
Genitive capitis capitum
Dative capitī capitibus
Ablative capite capitibus

Case Singular Plural
Nominative crūs crūra
Accusative crūs crūra
Genitive crūris crūrum
Dative crūrī crūribus
Ablative crūre crūribus

Case Singular Plural
Nominative ōs ōra
Accusative ōs ōra
Genitive ōris ōrum
Dative ōrī ōribus
Ablative ōre ōribus


2. The Dying Gaul:

Following the link in this paragraph, navigate to Palazzo Nuovo, then to the Hall of the Galatian. There you will see the marble statue of the dying gaul in the capitoline museum. But don't spend too much time browsing the whole museum. Remember to come back and study your Latin!


3. Ablative of Means/Instrument:

An ablative noun with no preposition often means, "by means of" that noun. Translate into English using "with" or "by". Exempla:

Puella rosās manibus tenet.
The girl is holding roses in her hands.

Puer puellam oculīs videt.
The boy sees the girl with his eyes.


4. The Irregular Adverbs BENE and MALE:

The adverbs from bonus, -a, -um and malus, -a, -um are irregular. Bene means well, while male means badly.

[N.B. If the usual rules of adverb formation were followed, the forms would be bonē and malē.]


Lectio Altera
Lines 42-91

Julius orders Syrus to fetch a doctor. The doctor discusses the boys health with Julius. Syra cannot hear well, and she therefore asks that everything the doctor says be repeated. In this way, Oerberg teaches the basic structure of indirect statement, which in Latin uses an accusative subject and an infinitive verb.

5. The Ablative of Respect/Specification:

An ablative noun with no preposition often means, "with respect to" that noun. Translate into English using "in" or "with respect to". Exempla:

Puella oculīs pulchra est.
The girl is beautiful with respect to her eyes.

Puer alter alterum capite pulsat.
One boy struck the other in the head.


6. The Noun Phrase - Accusative with Infinitive:

One type of noun phrase in Latin is called the accusative with infinitive construction. Nobody likes that kind of talk, so here are a few examples:

patrem cantāre

ancillās in culīnā manēre

mīlitēs Rōmānōs pugnāre

The trick here is to recognize the whole phrase as a noun. Therefore, the whole phrase can be the direct object of a verb. Examples:

Puer patrem cantāre audit.
The boy hears that his father is singing.

Domina ancillās in culīnā manēre iubet.
The mistress orders the slave-women to stay in the kitchen.

Dux mīlitēs Rōmānōs fortiter pugnāre videt.
The leader sees that the Roman soldiers fight bravely.

The bold phrases in the examples above are just long, glorified nouns. In each, the accusative word is the subject of its own phrase, while the verb is infinitive. In section 7 we will see how these noun phrases are commonly used with verbs of perception and expression to make indirect statements.


7. Verbs of Perception and Expression:

In this section of the chapter, we see the following verbs used to introduce an accusative with infinitive noun phrase:

videt

dīcit

iubet

In short, and using a kind of grammar-speak that only a Latinist can love, we might say the following:

    a. He sees that the accusative is doing the infinitive:

videt patrem cantāre
he sees that his father is singing.

    b. He says that the accusative is doing the infinitive:

dīcit fēminam ambulāre
he says that the woman is walking.

    c. He orders the accusative to do the infinitve:

iubet puerōs tacēre
he orders the boys to be quiet.

Reread lines 59-91. Pay attention to the verbs videt, dīcit, and iubet. Notice how they often govern a noun phrase which starts with an accusative noun and ends with an infinitive verb.

N.B. In the works of the Roman authors, entire paragraphs and even several pages of material may be written using this accusative with the infinitive structure.


Lectio Tertia
Lines 92-131

To help a swollen foot, the doctor lets blood from Quintus's arm. When the boy closes his eyes and becomes unresponsive, Syra thinks he is dead. As she comes to understand that he is not dead, many noun phrases (i.e. accusative with infinitive) are used. Two new irregular verbs are introduced.

8. The Irregular Verbs: VOLŌ, VELLE; POSSUM, POSSE

The verbs volō, velle (to wish, want, or be willing) and possum, posse (to be able) are irregular in Latin. The Present tense is given below, although, up through chapter 10, we are seeing forms only of the 3rd person, i.e. vult, volunt; potest, possunt.

VOLŌ, VELLE
to wish, want, be willing

Subject Latin Form English Translation
ego volō I want, I wish, I am willing
vīs you want, you wish, you are willing
is, ea, id vult he wants, he wishes, he is willing
nōs volumus we want, we wish, we are willing
vōs vultis you want, you wish, you are willing
eī, eae, ea volunt they want, they wish, they are willing


POSSUM, POSSE
to be able

Subject Latin Form English Translation
ego possum I am able
potes you are able
is, ea, id potest he/she/it is able
nōs possumus we are able
vōs potestis you are able
eī, eae, ea possunt they are able


9. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina Chapter 11

Also get a printable list of vocabulary for this chapter.

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