Lingua Latina 10: Bestiae et Homines

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 10. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

Lectio Prima

Lines 1-34

Men and beasts are discussed. Animals, fish, and birds are contrasted. Mercury is introduced as the messenger god and the god of merchants.

1. Memorize These 3rd-Declension Nouns:

Masculine: leō, homō, pēs
Feminine: vōx

Case Singular Plural
Nominative leō leōnēs
Accusative leōnem leōnēs
Genitive leōnis leōnum
Dative leōnī leōnibus
Ablative leōne leōnibus

Case Singular Plural
Nominative homō hominēs
Accusative hominem hominēs
Genitive hominis hominum
Dative hominī hominibus
Ablative homine hominibus

Case Singular Plural
Nominative vōx vōcēs
Accusative vōcem vōcēs
Genitive vōcis vōcum
Dative vōcī vōcibus
Ablative vōce vōcibus

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pēs pedēs
Accusative pedem pedēs
Genitive pedis pedum
Dative pedī pedibus
Ablative pede pedibus

2. CUM often means WHEN:

We have met cum the preposition, which needs an ablative noun to complete its meaning:

cum amīcīs

with friends

cum leōnibus amīcīs
with friendly lions

Now we see cum the conjunction, which means when. It will occur in a subordinate clause with its own verb:

cum leō fremit...

When the lion roars...

cum mercātor ornamenta vendit...
when the merchant sells ornaments...

3. Complementary Infinitives:

The verbs potest and possunt require and infinitive verb to complete their meaning. This is called a complementary infinitive.

avēs volāre possunt.

Birds are able to fly.

homō ambulāre potest.
A man is able to walk

4. ENIM vs. NAM:

These two words both mean for in a causal sense. They are synonyms. However, nam will always be the first word in its own clause, while enim will be the second (or even third) word in its own clause.

Words such as enim, which cannot occur first in a sentence or clause, are called postpositive.

Homō volāre nōn potest. Is enim ālās nōn habet.

Homō volāre nōn potest. Nam is ālās nōn habet.

A man is not able to fly. For he does not have wings.
Hominēs et leōnēs amīcī nōn sunt. Leōnēs enim bēstiae ferae sunt.

Hominēs et leōnēs amīcī nōn sunt. Nam leōnēs bēstiae ferae sunt.

Men and lions are not friends. For lions are wild beasts.

5. Aliī... Aliī... = Some... Others...


discipulī tacent, aliī clāmant.


students are quiet, others are shouting.

leōnēs edunt aliōs, aliōs relinquunt.
The lions eat some, others they leave behind.

Lectio Altera

Lines 35-73

This section contains vocabulary and sentence structure necessary to reading the story in part three, lines 74-131. This section should be studied as preparatory to the next section, not so much as an interesting story in itself. The author discusses Neptune, fish, the respiratory system of animals, things necessary for a human to live, etc.

6. Passive infinitives:

to call
to be called
to hold
to be held
to rule
to be ruled
to feel
to be felt

7. NECESSE EST = It is necessary

Most often it is necessary for a DATIVE to do an INFINITIVE:

necesse est Quīntō dormīre.

It is necessary for Quintus to sleep.

hominibus spīrāre necesse est.
It is necessary for humans to breathe

Lectio Tertia

Lines 74-131

Julia plays alone with her ball and her dog Margarīta, or Pearl. The boys do not want to play with her as they are searching for nests. Marcus finds a nest and sends Quintus up the tree to investigate. Quintus finds that the eggs have already hatched. When the thin branch breaks, he falls from the tree. He is hurt. Marcus summons Julius, who carries Quintus home and put him in bed.

8. Indirect Statement: Accusative Subject + Infinitive Verb

In chapters 1-9, we learned that the subject of a sentence is nominative. Now we see that an accusative noun can be the subject of an infinitive verb.

Puella videt canem caudam movēre.

Literally: The girl sees the dog to move her tail.
Better English:The girl sees that the dog is moving her tail.

This structure occurs dozens of times in chapters 10 and 11. It is sometimes called ōrātiō oblīqua, sometime indirect statement, or sometimes simply the accusative with infinitive construction.

Whatever it may be called, here is what you will see:

  • Verb of perception or expression, i.e. dīcit, audit, scit, crēdit, putat, sentit, etc.
  • Accusative Subject
  • Infinitive Verb (active or passive)

9. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina Chapter 10

Vocabulary Handout

Also get a

of vocabulary for this chapter.

Return to Lingua Latina

Return from Bestiae et Homines to Teach and Learn Latin