Lingua Latina 9: Pastor et Oves


Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata: You have to buy the book, but the help here is free.

A supplement for Chapter 9, Pastor et Oves. Use this page to support your reading and rereading of the chapter. You may find this page useful in reviewing for tests and quizzes.

Lectio Prima
Lines 1-38

Julius's shepherd is in the field with a dog and one-hundred sheep. Pastoral life is described, the threat of a wolf is introduced, and the shepherd falls asleep in the shade. His dog keeps watch.

1. Declensions 1, 2, and 3:

The first paragraph of chapter 9 introduces all the forms of the third-declension noun ovis (sheep). Memorize these forms:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative ovis ovēs
Accusative ovem ovēs
Genitive ovis ovium
Dative ovī ovibus
Ablative ove ovibus

The next two paragraphs introduce all the forms of the third-declension noun pāstor (shepherd). Memorize these forms:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pāstor pāstōrēs
Accusative pāstōrem pāstōrēs
Genitive pāstōris pāstōrum
Dative pāstōrī pāstōribus
Ablative pāstōre pāstōribus

Follow this link for a printable list of vocabulary and a summary of declensions.


2. EST vs. ĒST:

Take note of these two verbs:

esse
to be
ēsse
to eat
1st person singular sum
I am
edō
I eat
2nd person singular es
you are
ēs
you eat
3rd person singular est
he/she/it is
ēst
he/she/it eats
1st person plural sumus
we are
edimus
we eat
2nd person plural estis
you all are
editis
you all eat
3rd person plural sunt
they are
edunt
they eat

N.B. esseēsse, esēs and estēst. Also remember that the macron is used only in grammar books and beginning readers! Real Latin has no diacritical marks!


3. Shades of Meaning: PETERE

The verb petere has several shades of meaning, all based on the idea "to go after". Its meaning ranges from mild to aggressive.

  • In its mildest form, petere means to seek: ovēs herbam petunt. (The sheep are seeking the grass.)
  • It can also mean to ask, i.e. to seek from someone: Servus ā dominō petit. (The slave asks his master.)
  • In its most aggressive form, petere means to attack: lupus ovem petit. A wolf attacks the sheep.

In short, it means to go for, in varying degrees of intensity.


4. Two New Prepositions: SUB & SUPRĀ

There are two S's in the name SID SPACE, and they represent sine (without) and sub (under).

Half Truth: sub requires an ablative noun.

  • sub arbore
    under the tree
  • sub arboribus
    under the trees
  • sub caelō
    under the sky
  • sub lūnā
    under the moon

Whole Truth: sub sometimes takes the accusative, but we won't see it until chapter 22.


The preposition suprā is not included in SID SPACE. It always takes an accusative noun:

  • suprā terram
    above the land
  • suprā montēs
    above the mountains
  • suprā hortum
    above the garden

RULE: In this book, sine is the only two-syllable preposition that requires an ablative noun.


Lectio Altera
Lines 39-88

The black sheep wanders away from the flock into the woods. The Shepherd counts his sheep to find that one is missing. The dog confronts the wolf and saves the black sheep. The shepherd carries the black sheep back to the flock.


5. The Intensive Pronoun/Adjective: IPSE, IPSA, IPSUM

This pronoun/adjective often means himself, herself, or itself, but it is NOT reflexive.

lupus ipse est in silvā.
The wolf itself is in the woods.

silvae ipsae prope rīvum sunt.
The woods themselves are near the stream.

Mēdus est in oppidō ipsō.
Medus is in the town itself.


6. Onomatopoeia:

Every language has a few words derived from animal sounds. Latin has some good ones: Latin animal sounds


7. UT = as or when

The word ut has many uses in Latin. The first use we learn here is simple: as or when.

oculī meae puellae lucent ut stellae.
The eyes of my girlfriend shine as stars.

Mēdus, ut vidētur, est fugitīvus.
Medus, as is seems, is a fugitive.


8. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina Chapter 9

Also get a of vocabulary for this chapter.

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