Lingua Latina 7: Puella et Rosa

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 7. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

Lectio Prima
Lines 1-29

The two boys wait outside for Julius to arrive. Julia cries in her bedroom. Syra consols the girl, only to be insulted in return.


1. HĪC & ILLĪC

hīc means here, in this place.

illīc means there, in that place.

These adverbs are related to the demonstrative adjectives found in the next chapter.


2. The Reflexive Pronoun: SĒ

The pronoun is reflexive, i.e. it refers to the subject of the sentence. It is always third person, but it can be any gender and number. It is translated in context as himself, herself, itself, or themselves.

Exempla:

puella videt. The girl sees herself.
puer videt. The boy sees himself.
mālum vidēre nōn potest. An apple is not able to see itself.
puellae vident. The girls see themselves.
puerī vident. The boys see themselves.
māla vidēre nōn possunt. Apples are not able to see themselves.

Sometimes Latin uses a reflexive pronoun where English would have no pronoun at all.

puella sē vertit. The girl turns.
Literally, the girl turns herself.
mālum sē movēre nōn potest An apple is not able to move.
Literally, an apple is not able to move itself.

3. Immō:

The particle immō often contradicts the previous statement. In this case it means "on the contrary".

But immō can also confirm the previous statement. In this case it means "yes indeed" or "quite so".

So far in Lingua Latina we have seen it used only to contradict.

Examples:

Egēbat? Immō locuples erat.
Was he poor? On the contrary he was rich.
Cicero, Q. Rosc. 22

Nōn cēnābis? Immō ībō domum.
Will you not dine? On the contrary I shall go home.
Plautus, Vid. 53


4. Irregular Commands: ES! (ESTE!)

In Latin the verb esse (to be) has irregular imperatives. The singular present tense command is es (be!), as in es laeta! (be happy!) We are seeing this singular command in chapter 7 of the text. The plural command is este (be!), as in este laetae! (be happy!). We are not yet seeing this plural command in our text.


Lectio Altera
Lines 30-60

Julius arrives home. He greets and is greeted by the boys. The doorman (ōstiārius) lets him in, and Syrus and Leander bring in the sacks full of apples and pears. The distribution of apples, from lines 45 to 60, is the world's best introduction to the dative as indirect object. So far, all indirect objects are masculine.


5. Compound Verbs: VENIT & EST Have Many Compound Forms:

Singular
Plural
venit
he comes
veniunt
they come
invenit
he comes in
inveniunt
they come in
advenit
he comes to
adveniunt
they come to
revenit
he comes back
reveniunt
they come back
est
he is
sunt
they are
inest
he is in
insunt
they are in
adest
he is present
adsunt
they are present
abest
he is absent
absunt
they are absent


6. Objective Genitive with PLĒNUS:

Some adjectives need a genitive noun to complete their meaning. If a bag is full, for example, we are left asking full of what? That question is answered by a genitive noun.

Saccus est plēnus nummōrum
The sack is full of coins

Impluvium est plēnum aquae
The pool is full of water

Oculī sunt plēnī lacrimārum
The eyes are full of tears


7. Dative of Indirect Object:

A noun in the dative case can answer the question to whom? A dative indirect object will be found with verbs of giving, showing, and telling.

That is, we give something to a dative, we show something to a dative, and we tell something to a dative.

To whom did you give the pear?
To the boy (puerō).

To whom did you give a kiss?
To the girl (puellae).


Summary of Dative Forms

Dative Noun Ending Translation
puellae -ae to the girl
puerō to the boy
oppidō to the town
puerīs -īs to the boys
puellīs -īs to the girls
oppidīs -īs to the towns
to him, to her, to it
eīs to them


8. ET... ET.... & NEQUE... NEQUE....

Et means and. Neque means and not. Taken in a set of two, however, et... et... means both... and.... Neque... neque... means neither... nor....

Et puer et puella sunt in hortō
Both the boy and the girl are in the garden.

Neque māter neque pater est in ātriō.
Neither the mother nor the father is in the atrium.


9. Nōn Sōlum... Sed Etiam....

Not only... but also.... This is a very common construction in Roman authors.

Nōn sōlum Gallī sed etiam Britannī erant fortēs.
Not only the Gauls but also the Britons were brave.


Lectio Tertia
Lines 61-104

Aemilia enters and gives a kiss to her husband. Julius gives a kiss to his wife. So we see the dative feminine singular (line 63). Julius sends Marcus and Quintus to find Julia in the garden. She is neither in the garden nor in the peristyle. Delia is sent to the bedroom to summon Julia. Her father makes her feel better about her nose, gives her a kiss, an apple and a pear. He gives apples and pears also to the slave women.


10. Compounds of ĪRE:

Singular
Plural
it
he goes
eunt
they go
init
he goes in
ineunt
they go in
adit
he goes to, approaches
adeunt
they go to, approach
redit
he goes back, returns
redeunt
they go back, return
exit
he goes out
exeunt
they go out
trānsit
he goes across
trānseunt
they go across
circumit
he goes around
circumeunt
they go around
abit
he goes away
abeunt
they go away


11. Nōnne?

Nōnne is called an interrogative particle. It has no direct translation in English, but rather indicates that the questioner expects the answer YES.

Nōnne pulchra est puella?
Isn't the girl beautiful?
The girl is beautiful, isn't she?

Nōnne gaudium est lingua Latina?
Isn't Latin a joy?
Latin is a joy, isn't it?


12. CUI, Interrogative vs. CUI, Relative:

When cui introduces a question, it is an interrogative pronoun (to whom?).

Cui pater pirum dat?
To whom is father giving a pear?


When cui introduces a subordinate clause, it is a relative pronoun (to whom).

Puer cui pater pirum dat est Mārcus.
The boy to whom father is giving a pear is Marcus.


13. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina Chapter 7

Also get a of vocabulary for this chapter.

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