Elements of Latin Lesson 101
Vocabulary Review, Indirect Statements

Lūx et lēx — Light and law
Motto of the University of North Dakota

651. Review the word lists in 749, 750.

652. Indirect Statements in English. Direct statements are those which the speaker or writer makes himself or which are quoted in his exact language. Indirect statements are those reported in a different form of words from that used by the speaker or writer. Compare the following direct and indirect statements:

Direct Statements
Indirect Statements
The Gauls are brave He says that the Gauls are brave
He said that the Gauls were brave
The Gauls were brave He says that the Gauls were brave
He said that the Gauls had been brave
The Gauls will be brave He says that the Gauls will be brave
He said that the Gauls would be brave

When an English direct statement becomes indirect,

    a. The indirect statement becomes a dependent clause introduced by the conjunction that.

    b. The verb remains finite and its subject is in the nominative.

    c. The tenses of the verbs originally used are changed after the past tense, He said.


652. Indirect Statements in Latin. In Latin the direct and indirect statements above would be expressed as follows:

Direct Statements
Indirect Statements
Gallī sunt fortēs
The Gauls are brave
Dīcit Gallōs esse fortēs
He says that the Gauls are brave


Dīxit Gallōs esse fortēs
He said that the Gauls were brave
Gallī erant fortēs
The Gauls were brave
Dīcit Gallōs fuisse fortēs
He says that the Gauls were brave

Dīxit Gallōs fuisse fortēs
He said that the Gauls had been brave
Gallī erunt fortēs
The Gauls will be brave
Dīcit Gallōs futūrōs esse fortēs
He says that the Gauls will be brave

Dīxit Gallōs futūrōs esse fortēs
He said that the Gauls would be brave

Comparing these Latin indirect statements with the English in the preceding section, we observe three marked differences:

    a. There is no conjunction corresponding to that.

    b. The verb is in the infinitive and its subject is in the accusative.

    c. The tenses of the infinitive are not changed after a past tense of the principal verb.


654. Rule for Indirect Statements. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive.


655. Tenses of Infinitive. When the sentences in 653 were changed from the direct to the indirect form of statement, sunt became esse, erant became fuisse, and erunt became futūrōs esse.


656. Rule for Tenses of Infinitive in Indirect Statements. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive.


657. Rule for Verbs followed by Indirect Statements. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving.
658. Verb regularly followed by indirect statements are:

    a. Verbs of saying and telling:

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus to say, tell
negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus to deny, say not
nūntiō, nūntiāre, nūntiāvī, nūntiātus to announce
respondeō, respondēre, respondī, respōnsus to reply

    b. Verbs of knowing:

cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitus to learn, (in perfect) to know
sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus to know

    c. Verbs of thinking:

exīstimō, exīstimare, exīstimāvī, exīstimātus to think, believe
iūdicō, iūdicāre, iūdicāvī, iūdicātus to judge, decide
putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus to reckon, think
spērō, spērāre, spērāvī, spērātus to hope

    d. Verbs of Perceiving:

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus to hear
sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsus to feel, perceive
videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus to see
intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī, intellectus to understand, perceive


Most of these verbs you know. Learn the new ones, and use the list for reference.


Exercises

Print Lesson 101 Exercises

659. 1. Caesar per explōrātōrēs cognōverat hostēs inopiā frūmentī premī. 2. Rōmānī audīvērunt Helvētiōs proximā aestāte ex fīnibus suīs excessūrōs esse. 3. Lēgātī cum pervēnissent, respondērunt frātrem rēgis exercituī praefutūrum esse. 4. Prīncipēs Gallōrum negābant sē oppida sua incendisse. 5. Rēx respondit pecūniam esse rēgīnae.1 6. Poētae exīstimābant potestātem deōrum esse maiōrem quam deārum. 7. Hīs rēbus2 cognitīs, spērāvimus aliquem missūrum esse nāvigium quod nōs servāret.3 8. Cum urbī appropinquārēmus, intellēximus mediam partem altīs et lātīs mūrīs mūnītam esse. 9. Hāc ōrātiōne2 habitā, sēnsimus animum fīnitimōrum esse nōbīs inimīcum.

1 rēgīnae, predicate genitive of possessor (150). 2 Ablative absolute (400). 3 Subjunctive in a relative clause of purpose (589).


660. Using five of the verbs in (658), write five Latin sentences, each one containing an indirect statement.


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