Elements of Latin Lesson 99
Vocabulary Review, Constructions with CUM

Vīta hominum lūx — Light, the life of men
Motto of the University of New Mexico.

638. Review word lists in 732, 733, 737, 738.


639. Constructions with cum. The conjunction cum has three meanings: when, since, and although.


640. Clauses introduced by cum are of four kinds: temporal, descriptive, causal, and concessive.


641. Cum meaning when is temporal or descriptive1, and is usually followed by the indicative if the tense is present or future, otherwise by the subjunctive.

Veniam cum poterō
I will come when I can

Cum Rōmānī sē ostenderent, hostēs fūgērunt
When the Romans appeared (showed themselves), the enemy fled

1 A descriptive clause describes the circumstances under which the main action took place: as, The farmer found the money when he was plowing. It is, furthermore, implied that but for the circumstances stated, the action expressed in the main clause would not have taken place. Thus, in the senntece above, if the farmer had not been plowing, he would not have found the money.


642. Cum causal (since) and cum concessive (although) are followed by the subjunctive.

Cum pācem peterent, Caesar in eōs impetum nōn fēcit
Since they were seeking peace, Caesar did not make an attack on them

Cum prīmī ōrdinēs fūgissent, tamen reliquī fortiter cōnsistēbant
Although the first ranks had fled, yet the rest bravely stood their ground


643. Rule for Constructions with cum. Cum means when, since, or although, and takes the subjunctive except in a temporal or descriptive clause of the present or future time.


Exercises

Print Lesson 99 Exercises

644. 1. Cum rēgīna novās grātāsque condiciōnēs pācis prōposuisset, nē sociī quidem, quī inimīcī anteā fuerant, arma ac frūmentum dare nōlēbant.   2. Cum1 via tam longa sit, tamen oportet puerōs puellāsque iter facere.   3. Cum2 aqua satis alta esset, nautae sine ūllā difficultāte ad īnsulam parvam nāvigāvērunt.   4. Cum nāvēs omnī genere convocātae essent, rēgīna iussit servōs cōpiam frūmentī ex agrīs proximīs ad ōram maris portāre.   5. Cum ōdinēs nostrī sē ostenderent, hostēs in oppidum sē recipiēbant.   6. Cum Rōmānī in fīnēs Gallōrum venīrent, Gallī magnopere commōtī sunt.   7. Cum imperātor lēgātōs videt, rogat, "Cūr, lēgātī, vēnistis? Quid quaeritis?"   8. Lēgātī respondent, "Volumus in fidem et potestātem populī Rōmānī venīre."

1 cum = although. The concessive use of cum is often indicated by the presence of tamen in the main clause.   2 cum = since.


645. 1. Since the money is not sufficient, why do you not demand more?   2. Though you prepare all kinds of arms, you cannot overcome my allies.   3. When I was living at Rome, I often heard and saw famous Romans.   4. When you call me, I will hasten.   5. When the enemy appeared, we withdrew.


     


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