Elements of Latin Lesson 65
Adjectives of the Third Declension, Three Endings

Tē Deum laudāmus — We Praise Thee, O God

427. All adjectives are either of the first and second declensions (like bonus, pulcher, līber) or of the third declension.

428. Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems and are declined like nouns with i-stems (ยง412).

429. Classes of Adjectives. Adjectives of the third declension are classified as follows:
  • Class I. Adjectives of three endings — a different form in the nominative for each gender.
  • Class II. Adjectives of two endings — the nominative of the masculine and feminine alike, the neuter different.
  • Class III. Adjectives of one ending — the nominative masculine, feminine, and neuter all alike.

430. Adjectives of the third declension in -er have three endings; those in -is have two; the others have one.

431. Adjectives of three endings are declined as follows:

ācer, ācris, ācre (stem ācri-, base ācr-), sharp, keen, eager

Nom. ācer ācris ācre ācrēs ācrēs ācria
Gen. ācris ācris ācris ācrium ācrium ācrium
Dat. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
Acc. ācrem ācrem ācre ācrīs, -ēs ācrīs, -ēs ācria
Abl. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus


Print Lesson 65 Exercises

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
ācer, ācris, ācre keen, sharp, eager,courageous acrid, acrimonious, acerbic
aut (conj.) or (aut... aut..., either... or...)
celer, celeris, celere swift celerity, accelerate
equester, equestris, equestre of cavalry equestrian
fuga, fugae (f) flight; in fugam dare, to put to flight fugitive, fugacious
pedester, pedestris, pedestre on foot; with cōpiae, infantry pedestrian

432. 1. Rōmānī ācre proelium cum cōpiīs pedestribus equestribusque hostium facient.  2. Proeliō commissō equitēs nostrī cōpiās equestrēs hostium in fugam dare cupient.  3. Hostēs magnā virtūte pugnābunt, tamen vincentur.  4. Mulierēs puellaeque, quae proelium spectant, aut capientur aut salūtem fugā petent.  5. Castra nostra in aequō locō posita sunt.  6. Fīrmum praesidium ante castra locātum erat.  7. Cōpiae pedestrēs per silvās magnīs itineribus1 reductae erant.  8. Hominēs eius cīvitātis bona tēla habēbant et vāllum magnā vī oppugnāvērunt.

1 magna itinera, forced marches

433. 1. The sailors of Britain are not timid, and do not fear death.  2. But with eager hearts they dare to sail even through the midst of the perils of the sea.  3. Leaving safety behind,1 they put the enemy to flight.  4. The spurs which the cavalry forces wore2 were new.  5. The men had swift horses, and sought safety in flight.3   6. Either kill the captive or let him go.4

1 Ablative absolute.   2 gerō, -ere.   3 Laitn, by flight.   4 Imperative of dīmittō, -ere


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