Elements of Latin Lesson 62
The Third Declension, Irregular Nouns

Nīl sine nūmine — Nothing without devine guidance
Motto of the state of Colorado

419. A few nouns of the third declension are somewhat irregular in inflection. Among these are the following:

Case Singular Plural
nominative
subject
homō hominēs
genitive
possessor
hominis hominum
dative
indirect object
hominī hominibus
accusative
direct object
hominem hominēs
ablative
"from, with, in, by, at, on"
homine hominibus


Case Singular Plural
nominative
subject
vīs vīrēs
genitive
possessor
vīs (rare) vīrium
dative
indirect object
vī (rare) vīribus
accusative
direct object
vim vīrīs, -ēs
ablative
"from, with, in, by, at, on"
vī vīribus

a. The accusative plural vīrīs may be distinguished from the dative and ablative plural virī (from vir) by the length of the i in the first syllable.


Case Singular Plural
nominative
subject
iter itinera
genitive
possessor
itineris itinerum
dative
indirect object
itinerī itineribus
accusative
direct object
iter itinera
ablative
"from, with, in, by, at, on"
itinere itineribus


Exercises

Print Lesson 62 Exercises

Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
committō, committere, commīsī, commissus to join together; intrust; proelium committere, to join battle, begin an engagement commit, commission
homō, hominis (m, f) human being, man homicide, human, homo sapiens
iter, itineris (n) journey, march, route; iter dare, to give a right of way; iter facere, to march itinerary, itinerant
rēdūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus to lead back reduce, reduction
tamen (conjunction) nevertheless
virtūs, virtūtis (f) manliness; courage, valor, worth, virtue virtuous
vīs, (vīs) (f) force, power, violence; (in plural) physical strength vim, violent

420. Ōlim Rōmānī ā rēgibus regēbantur, sed post multōs annōs rēgēs vī et armīs pulsī sunt atque cōsulibus imperium commissum est. Prīmus cōnsul erat Brūtus, quem ēgregiā virtūte populus amābat. Tamen erant in urbe quīdam1 malī hominēs quī imperiō cōnsulis inimīcī erant ac rēgēs redūcī cupiēbant. In eōrum numerō erant fīliī Brūtī. Itaque Brūtus fīliōs suōs in iūdicium vocāvit et iussit eōs interficī. Quid dē eō exemplō virtūtis Rōmānae putās?

1 some, certain

See David's famous painting (1789) of lictors returning to Brutus the bodies of his sons.

David Brutus


421. 1. The men who were in the boat were overcome by the violence of the sea. 2. A few who were saved will march to the nearest city. 3. After the battle had begun,1 our soldiers by their great valor quickly conquered the remainder of the enemy.2 4. Nevertheless, the enemy did not flee, but led their forces back into camp.

1 Ablative absolute. 2 Latin idiom, the remaining enemy.


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