Elements of Latin Lesson 61
The Third Declension I-stems Neuter

Deus dītat — God enriches
Motto of the state of Arizona, whose wealth consists of minerals.

416. Neuter i-stems end in -e, -al, or -ar in the nominative singular, in in the ablative singular, and have an -i- in every form of the plural. They are declined as follows:

mare, N.
(stem mari-, base mar-)
animal, N.
(stem animāli-, base animāl-)
calcar, N.
(stem calcari-, base calcār-)
Nom. mare animal calcar ----
Gen. maris animālis calcāris -is
Dat. marī animālī calcārī
Acc. mare animal calcar ----
Abl. marī animālī calcārī
Nom. maria animālia calcāria -ia
Gen. (marium)1 animālium calcārium -ium
Dat. maribus animālibus calcāribus -ibus
Acc. maria animālia calcāria -ia
Abl. maribus animālibus calcāribus -ibus

1 While textbooks sometimes give the genitive plural of mare as marium, the i-stem genitive plural is not attested in literature until the medieval period. The only genitive plural use of mare in exstant classical Latin seems to be marum, not marium (Naev. Poet. 12.3). Yet the OLD says the genitive plural is usually -ium.

   a. In the nominative and accusative singular the final of the stem is either dropped or changed to -e.


Print Lesson 61 Exercises

Special Vocabulary
Latin Word Meaning Related Words
animal, animālis (-ium) (n) animal animate, inanimate
calcar, calcāris (-ium) (n) spur
cīvitās, -ātis (f) city state civic
contineō, -ēre, -tinuī, -tentus to hold together, bound, restrain, keep contain, continent
eques, equitis (m) horseman equestrian
lingua, -ae (f) language, tongue linguist
mare, maris (n) sea marine, submarine

417. Equitēs Rōmānī calcāria magna gerēbant et equī eōrum erant pulchra animālia.   2. Ōra Galliae maribus et īnsulīs continētur.   3. Gallia multās cīvitātēs et multās linguās habet.   4. Prīncipēs cīvitātis, quī bellō semper studēbant, lēgātōs ad Rōmānōs remittī vetuērunt.   5. Vīdistīne animālia magna quae in mediō marī habitant? Pauca vīdī.   6. Num calcāria quae eques gerit equō nocēbunt? Nōn nocēbunt.   7. Barbarī cōpiās suās trāns flūmen dūxērunt, sed lēgātus iussit cohortēs castrīs1 continērī.   8. Linguae Latīnae magnā dīligentiā studēmus.   9. Pōnite castra celeriter, hostēs impedīmenta iam cēpērunt.

1 Latin, by camp, ablative of means.

418. 1. Do their horsemen wear spurs? I think so.

2. If the danger is great, we can keep the soldiers in camp.1

3. We saw many large animals in the forests of Germany.

4. To sail through the deep seas is pleasing to sailors.2

5. The Romans found savage peoples and strange3 languages in those states.

1 Compare §417. 7.   2 See §130.   3 novus, -a, -um

The Tiber at the Foot of the Aventine Hill


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