Elements of Latin Lesson 60
Third Declension I-stems, Masculines and Feminines

Virtūte et armīs — By valor and arms
Motto of the university of Mississippi.

412. Masculine and feminine i-stems are declined alike. As distinguished from consonant stems, they have -ium in the genitive plural and -īs or -ēs in the accusative plural.

caedēs, F.
(stem caedi-, base caed-)
hostis, M.
(stem hosti-, base host-)
urbs, F.
(stem urbi-, base urb-)
cohors, F.
(stem cohorti-, base cohort-)
Nom. caedēs hostis urbs cohors
Gen. caedis hostis urbis cohortis
Dat. caedī hostī urbī cohortī
Acc. caedem hostem urbem cohortem
Abl. caede hoste urbe cohorte
Nom. caedēs hostēs urbēs cohortēs
Gen. caedium hostium urbium cohortium
Dat. caedibus hostibus urbibus cohortibus
Acc. caedēs hostēs urbēs cohortēs
Abl. caedibus hostibus urbibus cohortibus

   a. A few nouns have either or -e in the ablative singular: as, cīvis (abl. cīvī or cīve), ignis (abl. ignī or igne), nāvis (abl. nāvī or nāve).

   b. A number of Latin and Greek nouns ending in -is or -x have passed into English without change and form their plural in -ēs: as, analysis, analyses; appendix, appendices; axis, axes; basis, bases; crisis, crises; hypothesis, hypotheses; index, indices; oasis, oases; parenthesis, parentheses; thesis, theses; vertex, vertices.

413. Masculine and feminine i-stems include the following:

   a. Nouns in -ēs or -is with the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative. Thus caedēs, caedis, is an i-stem, but milēs, militis, is a consonant stem.

   b. Nouns of more than one syllable in -ns or -rs:as, cliēns, cohors.

   c. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant: as, urbs, arx.


Print Lesson 60 Exercises


Special Vocabulary
Latin Word Meaning Related Words
caedēs, is (-ium) (f) slaughter, carnage -cide in suicide, homicide, etc.
cohors, cohortis (-ium) (f) cohort, company (consisting of one tenth of a legion, or about 360 men)
hostis, hostis (-ium) (m) enemy (in war) hostile, hostility
mātrimōnium, -ī (n) marriage; in mātrimōnium ducere, to marry matrimony
mulier, mulieris (f) woman
signum, -ī (n) sign, signal, standard signify, design
urbs, urbis (-ium) (f) city urban, suburbs, urbane

414. Erant in urbe novā multī virī, sed mulierēs paucae. Itaque Rōmulus spectācula1 pūblica comparāvit et Sabīnōs,2 fīnitimōs suōs, invītāvit.3 Magnus numerus Sabīnōrum cum fīliābus ad spectācula Rōmāna vēnit. Tum signō datō4 Rōmānī fīliās Sabīnōrum rapuērunt. Statim Sabīnī cohortēs ad bellum ēvocāvērunt, et iam caedēs misera nōn longē aberat. Sed mulierēs, fīliae Sabīnōrum, quās Rōmānī in mātrimōnium dūxerant, in medium proelium properāvērunt et bellum prohibuērunt.

1 spectāculum, -ī (n) spectacle, game.   2 Sabīnī, -ōrum (m, pl) the Sabines, the nearest neighbors of Rome.   3 invītō, invītāre, to invite.   4 Ablative absolute.

Mulierēs Bellum Prohibuērunt

415. 1. The king had been driven from his realm by his wicked brother.

2. Where did Romulus build the new city?

3. After the city was built,1 whose daughters did the Romans marry?

4. The neighbors commanded the Romans to give back the women, but could not persuade them.2

5. The cohorts of the enemy where thrown down from the rampart with great slaughter.3

1 Ablative Absolute.   2 What case? See §224.   3 What construction? See §168


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