Elements of Latin Lesson 58
The Third Declension Neuter, Consonant Stems

Sī quaeris pēnīnsulam amoenam, circumspice — If you are seeking a charming peninsula, look about you
Motto of the state of Michigan, quoted from a famous code of Roman laws.

408. Neuter Consonant Stems. There are many neuter consonant stems. The nominative singular generally differs from the base. Thus, bases in -in- have final -en in the nominative, and bases in -er- or -or- generally have -us.

flūmen, N.
(base flūmin-)
tempus, N.
(base tempor-)
caput, N.
(base capit-)
Nom. flūmen tempus caput ----
Gen. flūminis temporis capitis -is
Dat. flūminī temporī capitī
Acc. flūmen tempus caput ----
Abl. flūmine tempore capite -e
Nom. flūmina tempora capita -a
Gen. flūminum temporum capitum -um
Dat. flūminibus temporibus capitibus -ibus
Acc. flūmina tempora capita -a
Abl. flūminibus temporibus capitibus -ibus

   a. These neuter nouns, like all other neuters, have the nominative and accusative alike, which in the plural end in -a. (§108.a)

   b. Some neuters of this class have passed into English without change: as, acumen, omen, specimen. A few have kept the Latin form also in the plural: as, genus, plural genera; stamen, plural stamens and stamina, with a difference in meaning. Note, too, the plurals of viscera and capita.


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Special Vocabulary
Latin Word Meaning Related Words
accipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -eptus to receive accept
caput, capitis (n) head, capital decapitate, chapter
et... et... both... and...
flūmen, flūminis (n) river flume
frāter, frātris (m) brother fraternal, fraternity
māter, mātris (f) mother maternal, maternity
soror, sorōris (f) sister sorority
tempus, temporis (n) time temporal

409. QUĪNTUS: Quid audīvistī, Mārce, dē magnō bellō quod cōnsul noster in Germāniā nunc gerit? Diū patria in perīculīs fuit et timidī animī perterrērī incipiunt.

MĀRCUS: Bona fāma vēnit. Cōnsul magnās cōpiās Germānōrum crēbrīs proeliīs superāvit atque eōs trāns flūmen Rhēnum ēgit. Rēx Germānōrum, vir barbarus et inimīcus, in silvās fūgit. Et1 māter et soror eius, quae in castrīs Germānīs erant, captae sunt.

QUĪNTUS: Certē ea fāma, sī vēra est, grāta populō Rōmānō erit. Quō modo2

dē victōriā audīvistī?

MĀRCUS: Et pater et frāter meus cum legiōnibus pugnant. Hodiē3

litterās4 ā patre accēpimus.

QUĪNTUS: Certē animum meum cōnfīrmāvistī. Sed tempus fugit. Valē.5

1 et...et.... both...and....   2 How   3 Today   4 litterae, -ārum (f) letter.   5 Good-by.

410. 1. When kings ruled the Romans, the times were evil.

2. Rome, the capital of Italy, has a well-known river.

3. After the king was killed,1 both his son and his brother begged for peace.

4. Did not the Romans capture both his mother and his sister?2 I think so.

5. After the ambassadors had been received,1 the chiefs who were eager for war3 fled.

1 Ablative Absolute.   2 See §251.   3 What case? See §223.


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