Elements of Latin Lesson 55
Sentences and Clauses; Relative Pronouns

In Deō spērāmus — In God we trust
Motto of Brown University.

380. Sentences and Clauses. Sentences are simple, compound, or complex.

381. A simple sentence makes but one statement, and has but one subject and one predicate: as,

Columbus discovered America.

382. A compound sentence contains two or more independent statements: as,

Columbus discovered America | and | he thereby won immortal fame.

383. A complex sentence contains one independent statement and one or more dependent statements: as,

When Columbus discovered America | he won immortal fame.

384. The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are called clauses. An independent statement is called a main clause; a dependent statement, a subordinate clause.

385. Subordinate clauses may be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Hence we have noun clauses, adjective clauses, and adverb clauses.

386. Relative Pronouns. Examine the following sentences:

  1. This is the wounded soldier.
  2. This is the soldier who has been wounded.
  3. This is the soldier, and the soldier has been wounded.

    Number 1 is a simple sentence. Number 2 is complex, the adjective wounded in number 1 being represented in number 2 by the subordinate adjective clause who has been wounded. The word who is a pronoun, taking the place of soldier, as shown by number 3, and it also connects the subordinate adjective clause who has been wounded with the noun soldier. A pronoun that connects an adjective clause with a noun or pronoun is called a relative pronoun, and the noun or pronoun is called its antecedent. In English the relative pronouns are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.

387. Declension of Relative Pronoun QUĪ. The relative pronoun in Latin is quī, quae, quod. It is declined as follows:

Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. quī quae quod quī quae quae
Gen. cuius cuius cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Acc. quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Abl. quō quā quō quibus quibus quibus

    a. Review the declension of is, §203, and note the similarity in the endings. The forms quī, quae, and quibus are the only forms showing new endings.

    Note. The genitive cuius is pronounced coo' yoos, and the dative cui is pronounced kwee.

388. Translation. The relative quī is translated as follows:

Masc. & Fem. Neut.
Nom. who, that which, what, that
Gen. of whom, whose of which, of what, whose
Dat. to or for whom to or for which, what
Acc. whom, that which, what, that
Abl. from, with, in, by whom from, with, in, by, which or what

389. Agreement of Relative Pronoun. Note the following sentences:

Puer quem vidēs est Mārcus.
The boy whom you see is Mark.

Puella quam vidēs est Lesbia.
The girl whom you see is Lesbia.

The relatives quem and quam agree with their antecedents puer and puella in gender and number, but not in case. The antecedents are nominatives, subjects of est, and the relatives are accusatives, objects of vidēs. The rule for agreement of the relative is, therefore, as follows:

390. Rule for Agreement of Relative Pronoun. The relative agrees with its antecedent in gender and number, but its case is determined by its use in its own clause.


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Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
impedīmentum, -ī (n) hinderance; (pl.) baggage impediment
moveō, -ēre, mōvī, mōtus to move motion, movement
paucī, -ae, -a few, only a few paucity
putō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus to think repute, impute, compute
reliquus, -a, -um the rest, remaining, remainder of relic, relinquish, derelict

391. 1. Mūcius, quī ā Porsennā in iūdicium vocātus est, animum vērum habēbat.

2. Rōma, quam Porsenna expugnāre cupiēbat, inopiā frūmentī labōrābat.

3. Vir cuius vīta prō patriā datur ēgregiam fāmam obtinēbit.

4. Porsenna, quem Mūcius interficere studēbat, magnopere perterritus est.

5. Factum quō Mūcius vītam suam cōnservāre potuit ā multīs poētīs nārrātum est.

6. Quid dē Mūciō putās? Vir clārus meō iūdiciō erat Mūcius.

7. Cūr appellātus est Scaevola?

392. 1. Afterwards the camp was moved from that unfavorable place.

2. Only a few hurled their spears, the rest immediately fled.

3. The baggage which was captured was placed in our camp.

4. Will he begin to send back the grain which they have found? I don't think so.

5. He will command the troops which he has summoned to move the baggage across the Rhine.

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