380. Sentences and Clauses. Sentences are simple, compound, or complex.
381. A simple sentence makes but one statement, and has but one subject and one predicate: as,
382. A compound sentence contains two or more independent statements: as,
383. A complex sentence contains one independent statement and one or more dependent statements: as,
384. The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are called clauses. An independent statement is called a main clause; a dependent statement, a subordinate clause.
385. Subordinate clauses may be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Hence we have noun clauses, adjective clauses, and adverb clauses.
386. Relative Pronouns. Examine the following sentences:
Number 1 is a simple sentence. Number 2 is complex, the adjective wounded in number 1 being represented in number 2 by the subordinate adjective clause who has been wounded. The word who is a pronoun, taking the place of soldier, as shown by number 3, and it also connects the subordinate adjective clause who has been wounded with the noun soldier. A pronoun that connects an adjective clause with a noun or pronoun is called a relative pronoun, and the noun or pronoun is called its antecedent. In English the relative pronouns are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.
387. Declension of Relative Pronoun QUĪ. The relative pronoun in Latin is quī, quae, quod. It is declined as follows:
a. Review the declension of is, §203, and note the similarity in the endings. The forms quī, quae, and quibus are the only forms showing new endings.
Note. The genitive cuius is pronounced coo' yoos, and the dative cui is pronounced kwee.
388. Translation. The relative quī is translated as follows:
|Masc. & Fem.||Neut.|
|Nom.||who, that||which, what, that|
|Gen.||of whom, whose||of which, of what, whose|
|Dat.||to or for whom||to or for which, what|
|Acc.||whom, that||which, what, that|
|Abl.||from, with, in, by whom||from, with, in, by, which or what|
389. Agreement of Relative Pronoun. Note the following sentences:
The relatives quem and quam agree with their antecedents puer and puella in gender and number, but not in case. The antecedents are nominatives, subjects of est, and the relatives are accusatives, objects of vidēs. The rule for agreement of the relative is, therefore, as follows:
390. Rule for Agreement of Relative Pronoun. The relative agrees with its antecedent in gender and number, but its case is determined by its use in its own clause.
|Latin Word||Meaning||Related Words|
|impedīmentum, -ī (n)||hinderance; (pl.) baggage||impediment|
|moveō, -ēre, mōvī, mōtus||to move||motion, movement|
|paucī, -ae, -a||few, only a few||paucity|
|putō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus||to think||repute, impute, compute|
|reliquus, -a, -um||the rest, remaining, remainder of||relic, relinquish, derelict|
391. 1. Mūcius, quī ā Porsennā in iūdicium vocātus est, animum vērum habēbat.
2. Rōma, quam Porsenna expugnāre cupiēbat, inopiā frūmentī labōrābat.
3. Vir cuius vīta prō patriā datur ēgregiam fāmam obtinēbit.
4. Porsenna, quem Mūcius interficere studēbat, magnopere perterritus est.
5. Factum quō Mūcius vītam suam cōnservāre potuit ā multīs poētīs nārrātum est.
6. Quid dē Mūciō putās? Vir clārus meō iūdiciō erat Mūcius.
7. Cūr appellātus est Scaevola?
392. 1. Afterwards the camp was moved from that unfavorable place.
2. Only a few hurled their spears, the rest immediately fled.
3. The baggage which was captured was placed in our camp.
4. Will he begin to send back the grain which they have found? I don't think so.
5. He will command the troops which he has summoned to move the baggage across the Rhine.