Elements of Latin Lesson 51
The Perfect Infinitive Passive and the Future Infinitive Active; Prepositions

Dā dextram miserō — Lend a hand
From Vergil. Literally, Give your right (hand) to an unfortunate (man).

354. As the perfect infinitive passive and the future infinitive active are also formed from the participial stem, they are most easily learned at this point.


355. Perfect Infinitive Passive. The perfect infinitive passive is formed by adding esse to the past participle: as, vocātus esse, to have been called. Similarly in the other conjugations we have monitus esse, to have been advised; rēctus esse, to have been ruled; audītus esse, to have been heard.


356. Future Infinitive Active. The future infinitive active of vocō is vocātūrus esse, to be about to call. This is formed by adding -ūrus esse to the participial stem. Similarly in the other conjugations we have monitūrus esse, to be about to advise; rēctūrus esse, to be about to rule; audītūrus esse, to be about to hear.


357. We have now completed the infinitive, active and passive. The synopsis of the infinitives of vocō is as follows:

ACTIVE
PASSIVE
Present
vocāre
to call
vocā
to be called
Perfect
vocāvisse
to have called
vocātus esse
to have been called
Future
vocātūrus esse
to be about to call
vocātum īrī (rare)
to be about to be called

a. The infinitives of the other conjugations are similarly formed; but do not forget the peculiar formation of the present infinitive passive in the third conjugation (§285).


358. Prepostions. We learned in §77 that only the accusative and ablative are used with prepositions. Those prepositions which we have had before are here summarized and three more added. See SID SPACE for prepositions requiring an ablative noun.

    a. Prepositions expressing ablative relations (from, with, in, on, by, etc.) govern the ablative case. Learn the eight SID SPACE prepositions requiring an ablative noun.

    b. Prepositions not expressing ablative relations must govern the accusative. Among these are

ad to, towards
ante before, in front of
in into, onto; against
per through
post after, behind
trāns across

There are many others; but learn the list above of prepositions taking the ablative (SID SPACE), and use the accusative after all others.


Exercises

Print Lesson 51 Exercises

359. 1. Imperium Rōmānum Germānīs quī trāns Rhēnum habitābant nōn grātum erat.

2. Itaque per multōs annōs Germānī Rōmānōs ab rēgnīs suīs prohibuērunt.

3. Fīrmīs et1 vērīs animīs prō patriā fortiter pugnāvērunt.

4. Rēgna Germānōrum longē trāns Rhēnum patēbant.

5. Germānī cōpiās integrās ex silvīs oppidīsque ēvocābant.

6. Numerus virōrum erat magnus et animī eōrum bellō studēbant.

7. Sed fortūna bellī erat inīqua Germānīs ac Rōmānīs victōriam dedit.

8. Anteā Germānī fuerant līberī, sed post victōriam Rōmānam multī in magnās silvās fūgērunt.

9. Multī raptī sunt atque in Italiam missī sunt.

10. Quam misera erat fortūna eōrum captīvōrum.

1 What are the three Latin words for and?


360. 1. The Roman power did not formerly extend across the Rhine.

2. When you are in the realm of the Germans, you will see great forests.

3. The nature of the place was certainly unfavorable for the battle.

4. They will fight bravely and many will give their lives1 for their country.2

5. After the unfavorable battle grain was provided and many fresh troops were called out.

1 Singular. 2 Not the dative.


361. Give the infinitives, active and passive, of the following verbs: pācō, habeō, videō, agō, gerō, capiō, iaciō, audiō, mūniō.


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