Elements of Latin Lesson 49
Latin Word Formation

Tempus fugit — Time flies
Literally, times flees, escapes.

341. Something has been said in §§ 238 and 258 concerning Latin and English prefixes. Those mentioned before are here reviewed and three new ones are added.

  • ā, ab, away from, as in abdūcō, lead away; English, abduct
  • ad, to, as in, addūcō, lead to; English, adduce
  • con- (com-, co-), together, as in condūcō, lead together; English, conduct. Often with intensive force, as in convincō, conquer completely; English, convince
  • , down from, as in dēdūcō, lead down; English, deduce
  • ē, ex, out from, as in ēdūcō, lead out; English, educe
  • in, in, into, as in indūcō, lead in; English, induce
  • prō, forth, foward, as in prōdūcō, lead forward; English, produce
  • re- (red-), back or again, as in redūcō, lead back; English, reduce
  • trāns (trā), across, as in trādūcō, lead across; English, traduce

All these prefixes, excepting con- and re-, are also used alone as prepositions.

Note. An English derivative from a Latin compound often loses the literal meaning of the Latin and is used only in a figurative sense. This is well illustrated by the derivatives given above. For example, traduce never means to lead across, but is used only in the figurative sense of to make a parade of, dishonor, slander. The Latin student has the advantage of being able to trace the figurative meaning back to its literal source.


342. Derivation. Write a list of English derivatives from the verbs servō, locō, vocō, videō, mittō, dīcō, spectō, selecting the proper prefixes from §341, and adding such English suffixes as you may know. Use the English dictionary.

Note. Students should keep derivation notebooks.

Exercises

Print Lesson 49 Exercises

GALLĪ RŌMAM OPPUGNANT

Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
ascendō, -ere, ascendī, ascēnsus climb ascend, ascension, descend
expugnō, -āre, -āvī, ātus take by storm, capture; distinguish from oppugnō, assault
fugiō, -ere, fūgī, fugitūrus flee, run fugitive, refuge
iaciō, iacere, iēcī, iactus throw, hurl inject, eject, and many other compounds
magnopere greatly
perterreō, -ēre, -uī, -itus terrify, alarm terror, terrible
sacer, sacra, sacrum sacred
vāstō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus lay waste, destroy waste, devastate

343. Ōlim Gallī Italiam vāstābant. Iam agricolās miserōs ex agrīs lātīs ēgerant et equōs pulchrōs eōrum rapuerant. Iam multa oppida expugnāverant. Iam Rōmam petēbant. Tum Rōmānī magnopere perterrēbantur et in Capitōlium1 fūgērunt. Mānlius, vir ēgregius bellī, Capitōlium fīrmō praesidiō tenuit nec Gallōs timuit. Capitōlium erat in locō altō et magnīs mūrīs mūniēbātur. Diū populus nātūrā locī et praesidiō dēfendēbātur et Gallī frūstrā2 labōrābant. Victōria longē aberat. Sed dēnique barbarī novum cōnsilium cēpērunt.3 Nocte4 magnō silentiō5 saxa6 alta ascendērunt. Nec audiēbantur nec prohibēbantur. Iam mūrōs Capitōlī tenēbant. Sed erant in Capitōliō sacrī ānserēs.7 Eī ānserēs Gallōs audīvērunt et Capitōlium servāvērunt. Nam clāmōre8 suō Mānlium ex somnō9 excitāvērunt.10 Mānlius arma rapuit, suōs vocāvit, Gallōs dē saxīs altīs iēcit.

1 The Capitolium was the citadel of Rome. It was located on the Capitoline Hill, which was steep and rocky. 2 frūtrā, in vain. 3 cōnsilium capere, to form a plan. 4 nocte, by night. 5 silentium, -ī (n), silence. 6 saxum, -ī (n), rock. 7 ānserēs, geese. These were sacred to Juno, whose temple was on the Capitoline. 8 clāmōre, by their cackling. 9 somnus, -ī (m), sleep. 10 excitō, -āre, to arouse.

     

Return to Elements of Latin 

Return from Latin Word Formation to Teach and Learn Latin Online

Subscribe to Teach and Learn Latin Quarterly: Find new lessons and share your own!
Enter Your E-mail Address
Enter Your First Name (optional)
Then

Don't worry — your e-mail address is totally secure.
I promise to use it only to send you Teach and Learn Latin Quarterly.