341. Something has been said in §§ 238 and 258 concerning Latin and English prefixes. Those mentioned before are here reviewed and three new ones are added.
All these prefixes, excepting con- and re-, are also used alone as prepositions.
Note. An English derivative from a Latin compound often loses the literal meaning of the Latin and is used only in a figurative sense. This is well illustrated by the derivatives given above. For example, traduce never means to lead across, but is used only in the figurative sense of to make a parade of, dishonor, slander. The Latin student has the advantage of being able to trace the figurative meaning back to its literal source.
342. Derivation. Write a list of English derivatives from the verbs servō, locō, vocō, videō, mittō, dīcō, spectō, selecting the proper prefixes from §341, and adding such English suffixes as you may know. Use the English dictionary.
Note. Students should keep derivation notebooks.
|Latin Word||Meaning||Related Words|
|ascendō, -ere, ascendī, ascēnsus||climb||ascend, ascension, descend|
|expugnō, -āre, -āvī, ātus||take by storm, capture; distinguish from oppugnō, assault|
|fugiō, -ere, fūgī, fugitūrus||flee, run||fugitive, refuge|
|iaciō, iacere, iēcī, iactus||throw, hurl||inject, eject, and many other compounds|
|perterreō, -ēre, -uī, -itus||terrify, alarm||terror, terrible|
|sacer, sacra, sacrum||sacred|
|vāstō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus||lay waste, destroy||waste, devastate|
1 The Capitolium was the citadel of Rome. It was located on the Capitoline Hill, which was steep and rocky. 2 frūtrā, in vain. 3 cōnsilium capere, to form a plan. 4 nocte, by night. 5 silentium, -ī (n), silence. 6 saxum, -ī (n), rock. 7 ānserēs, geese. These were sacred to Juno, whose temple was on the Capitoline. 8 clāmōre, by their cackling. 9 somnus, -ī (m), sleep. 10 excitō, -āre, to arouse.