Elements of Latin Lesson 47
Future Perfect Indicative & Perfect Infinitive Active; Principal Parts

Vēnī, vīdī, vīcī — I came, I saw, I conquered
A famous dispatch of Caesar at the conclusion of a short and brilliant campaign. He was a man of quick decision and tireless energy.

330. Future Perfect Indicative Active. The tense sign of the future perfect indicative active is -eri-. This is added to the perfect stem. The personal endings are the same as in the future (-ō, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt), and the inflection is like that of fuerō (308).

331. The future perfect indicative active of the four conjugations is inflected as follows:

Subject 1st Conjugation 2nd Conjugation 3rd Conjugation 4th Conjugation
(Stem: vocāv-)
I will have called
(Stem: monu-)
I will have advised
(Stem: rēx-)
I will have ruled
(Stem: audīv-)
I will have heard
ego vocāverō monuerō rēxerō audīverō
vocāveris monueris rēxeris audīveris
is vocāverit monuerit rēxerit audīverit
nōs vocāverimus monuerimus rēxerimus audīverimus
vōs vocāveritis monueritis rēxeritis audīveritis
vocāverint monuerint rēxerint audīverint

332. Perfect Infinitive Active. The perfect infinitive active is also part of the perfect system and is easily learned in this connection. It is formed by adding -isse to the perfect stem.

Conjugation Perfect Stem Perfect Infinitive
I vocāv- vocāvisse
to have called
II monu- monuisse
to have advised
III rēx- rēxisse
to have ruled
IV audīv- audīvisse
to have heard
Sum fu- fuisse
to have been

333. Principal Parts of Fourth Conjugation. The following list comprises the verbs of the fourth conjugation thus far used. Learn the principal parts, review the meanings, and drill on the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative and the perfect infinitive.

Present Indicative Present Infinitive Perfect Indicative Perfect Passive Participle Meaning
audiō audīre audīvī audītus hear
inveniō invenīre invēnī inventus find
mūniō mūnīre mūnīvī mūnītus fortify
veniō venīre vēnī ventus come


Print Lesson 47 Exercises

334. Give the present and perfect infinitives of , mūniō, faciō, crēdō, dīcō, mittō, teneō, videō, persuādeō, portō, absum, pācō.

335. Inflect the following verbs in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect: nārrō, timeō, veniō, agō, locō, mittō, pugnō, mūniō, sum.

336. 1. You (sing.) have led, they have believed, they had sent.   2. He has seen, you (sing.) will have said, to have led.   3. You (plur.) have sent, they have obeyed, we had departed.   4. He has attacked, I had given, I shall have sent.   5. We shall have feared, he has extended, to have been.   6. You (sing.) had given, you (plur.) will have made, to have sent.   7. You (sing.) had come, you (plur.) had given, he will have carried.


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