Elements of Latin Lesson 46
Pluperfect Indicative, Principal Parts (continued)

Amīcus certus in rē incertā cernitur — A friend in need is a friend indeed

From Ennius, the most famous of the early Latin poets. More literally, The faithful friend is revealed when all is unfaithful. Note the play on words.

325. Pluperfect Indicative. The tense sign of the pluperfect indicative active is -erā-. This is added to the perfect stem. The personal endings are the same as in the imperfect indicative (-m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt), and the inflection is like that of fueram (308).


326. The pluperfect indicative active of the four conjugations is inflected as follows:

Subject 1st Conjugation 2nd Conjugation 3rd Conjugation 4th Conjugation
vocāveram
(Stem: vocāv-)
I had called
monueram
(Stem: monu-)
I had advised
rēxeram
(Stem: rēx-)
I had ruled
audīveram
(Stem: audīv-)
I had heard
ego vocāveram monueram rēxeram audīveram
vocāverās monuerās rēxerās audīverās
is vocāverat monuerat rēxerat audīverat
nōs vocāverāmus monuerāmus rēxerāmus audīverāmus
vōs vocāverātis monuerātis rēxerātis audīverātis
vocāverant monuerant rēxerant audīverant


327. Principal Parts of Third Conjugation. Learn the principal parts of the following verbs of the third conjugation. The list includes all such verbs used in lessons 1-45. Review the meanings and drill on the inflection of the perfect and pluperfect.

Present Indicative Present Infinitive Perfect Indicative Perfect Passive Participle Meaning
abdūcō abdūcere abdūxī abductus lead away
agō agere ēgī āctus drive
capiō capere cēpī captus take
crēdō crēdere crēdidī crēditus believe
dēfendō dēfendere dēfendī dēfēnsus defend
dīcō dīcere dīxī dictus say
dīmittō dīmittere dīmīsī dīmissus send away
discēdō discēdere discessī discessus go away
dūcō dūcere dūxī ductus lead
ēdūcō ēdūcere ēdūxī ēductus lead out
faciō facere fēcī factus make
gerō gerere gessī gestus carry on
indūcō indūcere indūxī inductus lead in
mittō mittere mīsī missus send
petō petere petīvī / petiī petītus seek
rapiō rapere rapuī raptus seize
regō regere rēxī rēctus rule
resistō resistere restitī ------ resist
vincō vincere vīcī victus conquer


Exercises

Print Lesson 46 Exercises


306. 1. Ēgerāmus, mīsistī, vīcit.   2. Capiet, gessērunt, restiterat.   3. Rēxit, indūxerant, faciēmus.   4. Vocāverās, monuit, petiērunt.   5. Habēbit, rapuistis, ēdūxerātis.   6. Crēdideram, ēgistī, pāruit.   7. Fēcit, dēfenderat, persuāsimus.   8. Mittit, mittet, mīsit.   9. Dūxērunt, dīmīserāmus, nocēbit.   10. Dīxistī, discesserant, ēdūxistis.


329. 1. We have conquered, he will favor, he had made.   2. You (sing.) have waged, they will extend, lead thou.   3. He has seized, they had departed, you (plur.) had taken.   4. He has said, we were defending, we shall reply.


     


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