Elements of Latin Lesson 45
Principal Parts of Verbs

Ut sēmentem fēceris, ita metēs — As you sow, so shall you reap
From Cicero, Rome's greatest orator and generally considered her first man of letters.

321. The following verbs include the three irregular verbs and all the verbs of the second conjugation previously used. Review the meanings and drill on the inflection of the perfect.

322. Principal Parts of Irregular Verbs. Learn the principal parts of the following irregular verbs:

Present Indicative Present Infinitive Perfect Indicative Perfect Passive Participle Meaning
sum esse fuī be
absum abesse āfuī be away
dare dedī datus give

  a. Sum and absum have the future participles futūrus and āfutūrus

323. Principal Parts of Second Conjugation. Learn the principal parts of the following verbs of the second conjugation:

Present Indicative Present Infinitive Perfect Indicative Perfect Passive Participle Meaning
faveō favēre fāvī fautūrus favor
habeō habēre habuī habitus have
moneō monēre monuī monitus advise
noceō nocēre nocuī nocitūrus injure
pāreō pārēre pāruī ------ obey
pateō patēre patuī ------ extend
persuādeō persuādēre persuāsī persuāsus persuade
prohibeō prohibēre prohibuī prohibitus prevent
respondeō respondēre respondī respōnsus reply
sedeō sedēre sēdī sessus sit
studeō studēre studuī ------ be eager
teneō tenēre tenuī tentus hold
timeō timēre timuī ------ fear
videō vidēre vīdī vīsus see

  a. Note that all these verbs have the infinitive ending -ēre. This marks them as belonging to the second conjugation. Further, observe that the formation of the perfect varies in different verbs and that the perfect participle is sometimes lacking. Occasionally a verb that has no past participle will have a future participle ending in -ūrus, and this is then given in the principal parts. There are two examples of this in the above list. Do you see them? In dealing with verbs make it a rule to look at the infinitive first of all to determine the conjugation, and do not be surprised to find irregularities in the formation of the perfect and the participle.


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Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
ante (prep. + acc.) before anteroom, antebellum
imperium, -ī (n) command, realm, supreme power empire, imperial
inveniō, -īre, invēnī, inventum find, come upon invent
minimē (adv.) not at all, least of all minimum
nātūra, -ae (f) nature natural

324. Nōn in agrō sed in casā lēgātī Dentātum invēnērunt. Vir clārus ante mēnsam1 sedēbat. Ibi cēnam2 rāpulōrum3 edēbat.4 Tum lēgātī casam intrāvērunt5 et dīxērunt: "Factīs tuīs ēgregiīs et officiīs pūblicīs, Dentāte, Samnītēs amīcitiam tuam petunt. Ea praemia et id aurum sunt tua." Tum Dentātus respondit: "Minimē, Samnītēs, nātūram meam tenētis.6 Vērus Rōmānus nōn studet aurō sed imperiō in7 eōs quī aurum habent. Iam discēdite."

1 mēnsa, -ae (f) table.   2 cēna, -ae (f) dinner.   3 rāpulum, -ī (n) young turnip.   4 edō, edere to eat.   5 intrō, intrāre to enter.   6 teneō, tenēre understand.  7 in = over

That classical studies have been of very great value to many persons is simply a matter of fact, and not of opinion. Their value moreover has not been purely cultural but intensely practical.
   --Marion Leroy Burton, President of the University of Michigan


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