Elements of Latin Lesson 43
Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of SUM

Dīmidium factī est coepisse — Well begun is half done
From Horace, the greatest Roman lyric poet and still the most widely read. The literal translation of the Latin is Half of an achievement is to have begun it.

308. The irregular verb sum is inflected in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative as follows:

Principal Parts: SUM, ESSE, FUĪ
Perfect Stem: FU-

P E R F E C T

ego
I
fuī
I have been, I was

you
fuistī
you have been, you were
is, ea, id
he, she, it
fuit
he has been, he was
nōs
we
fuimus
we have been, we were
vōs
you all
fuistis
you all have been, you all were
eī, eae, ea
they
fuērunt or fuēre
they have been, they were


P L U P E R F E C T

ego
I
fueram
I had been

you
fuerās
you had been
is, ea, id
he, she, it
fuerat
he had been
nōs
we
fuerāmus
we had been
vōs
you all
fuerātis
you all had been
eī, eae, ea
they
fuerant
they had been


F U T U R E   P E R F E C T

ego
I
fuerō
I will have been

you
fueris
you will have been
is, ea, id
he, she, it
fuerit
he will have been
nōs
we
fuerimus
we will have been
vōs
you all
fueritis
you all will have been
eī, eae, ea
they
fuerint
they will have been

  a. The pluperfect may be formed by adding -eram, the imperfect of sum, to the perfect stem. The tense sign is -erā-.

  b. The future perfect may be formed by adding -erō, the future of sum, to the perfect stem. But the third person plural ends in -erint, not -erunt. The tense sign is -eri-.

  c. The perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect of all active verbs are formed on the perfect stem. They are all inflected like sum.


Exercises

Print Lesson 43 Exercises

SEXTUS, QUĪNTUS, MĀRCUS

Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
annus, -ī (m) year annual, perennial
ēgregius, -a, -um remarkable, marvelous egregious, congregate
exemplum, -ī (n) example, specimen exemplary
officium, -ī (n) duty, service, obligation office, official
pācō, -āre to subdue, pacify pacific
vīlla, -ae (f) farm, villa, countryseat village


306. MĀRCUS. Ubi fuistis, Sexte et Quīnte?

SEXTUS. Ego1 in nostrā vīllā fuī, et Quīntus in suā vīllā fuit. Diū in agrīs nostrīs fuimus. Officia agricolārum sunt multa. Habēsne bonōs servōs?

MĀRCUS. Habeō. Diū exempla ēgregiae dīligentiae fuērunt. Eīs ampla praemia mox dabō et eōs līberābō.

SEXTUS. Sine sapientiā fueris. Tenē bonōs servōs et līberā eōs numquam. Sed quid spectās, Quīnte?

QUĪNTUS. Spectō eum pulchrum librum. Estne tuus?

MĀRCUS. Meus est. Semper bonīs librīs1 studēbam. Is liber erat Galbae2 et iam diū in casā eius erat. Liber est nōtus et dē bellīs Rōmānōrum Gallōrumque nārrat. Dēnique Gallī pācantur, sed iam per septem3 annōs Rōmānī in Galliā fuerant.

1 Dative. See 224.   2 Genitive of the possessor, 150.   3 Can you count seven in Latin?


310. 1. Where had the farmers been? They had been on their farms.   2. Have you not been examples of remarkable industry, O slaves? Yes.   3. Soon, Romans, we shall have been in Gaul for1 seven years.   4. How long2 have we been absent from our duties?   5. Finally the Gauls will be subdued, but they will have been neither stupid nor cowardly.   6. Encourage the loyal hearts of their3 allies with an abundant supply of money.

1 per.   2 Distinguish between quam diū, how long, and quam longē, how far.   3 Not suus (cf. 135, 209).


     


Return to Elements of Latin


Return from Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of SUM to Teach and Learn Latin Online