Elements of Latin Lesson 34:
Present Indicative Passive of MONEŌ,
Ablative of Personal Agent

Terrās irradient — Let them illuminate the earth
Motto of Amherst College
260. The present indicative passive of the second conjungation is inflected as follows:

Person & Number Latin Word English Meaning
1st singular moneor I am (being) warned
2nd singular monēris you are (being) warned
3rd singular monētur he/she/it is (being) warned
1st plural monēmur we are (being) warned
2nd plural monēminī you (all) are (being) warned
3rd plural monentur they are (being) warned


261. Rule for Ablative of Personal Agent. The ablative with the preposition ā or ab is used with passive verbs to indicate the person by whom the act is performed.

Puerī ā Rōmānīs servantur.
The boys are saved by the Romans.

Note. The literal meaning of ā Rōmānīs is from the Romans, but in our idiom by the Romans is a better translation.


262. Ablative of Means and Ablative of Agent Compared. Compare the two sentences:

Puerī ā Rōmānīs servantur.
The boys are saved by the Romans.

Puerī nāvigiō servantur.
The boys are saved by (or with) a boat.

In the first sentence ā Rōmānīs is the ablative of personal agent; in the second nāvigiō is the ablative of means. To aid in distinguishing these two constructions, which are often confused, observe the following facts:

    a. The agent is a person; the means is a thing.

    b. The ablative of personal agent has the preposition ā or ab; the ablative of means has no preposition.

    c. The ablative of personal agent is used only with a passive verb; with the ablative of means the verb may be either active or passive.


Exercises

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263. Like moneor, inflect habeor, teneor, timeor, and videor.


264. 1. Superāris, habēmur, videntur. 2. Tenētur, occupāminī, timēmur. 3. Vidēris, parantur, tenēminī. 4. Servātur, habētur, tenēmur. 5. Portāminī, habēris, teneor.


265. 1. Gallī crēbra proelia faciunt et fortiter pugnant, sed ā fīnitimīs superantur. 2. Mīnōtaurus ā fīliābus eōrum timētur. 3. Num Thēseus Mīnōtaurum barbarum timet? Nōn timet. 4. Capite arma, Rōmānī; ā barbarīs inimīcīs vidēminī. 5. Nec frūmentum nec aquam in castrīs habēmus. Quid faciēmus? 6. Tenē castra, Mārce, bonīs tēlīs. Iam1 sociī nostrī auxilium mittent.

1 soon.


266. 1. The Gauls are quickly conquered by-the-arms of-the-Romans. 2. Are not pleasing stories told by many poets? Yes. 3. Theseus is-advised by Minerva, the goddess of-wisdom. 4. By-the-wisdom of-Minerva we-are-saved. 5. Give that money to-the-good queen, my son. 6. The camp of-the-savages has neither wall nor ditch. 7. When we-are-seen by your men, we-shall-suffer punishment.


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