Elements of Latin Lesson 30:
The Future Indicative Active of the
Third and Fourth Conjugations

In hōc signō vincēs — In this sign thou shalt conquer
Translation of the Greek motto which Constantine, the first Christian emperor, is said to have seen on a flaming cross in the sky. This vision, we are told, led to his conversion, and his banners afterwards bore a cross with its motto. It is now the motto of the order of Knights Templar.

235. Tense Sign and Inflection. The tense sign of the future in the third and fourth conjugations is not -bī-, as in the first and second conjugations, but -ā- in the first person singular and -ē- in the rest of the tense. This tense sign takes the place of the final vowel of the present stem in verbs conjugated like regō, and is preceded by the stem vowel -i in verbs conjugated like audiō. The usual shortening of long vowels takes place (cf. § 194).


236. The inflection of the future indicative active of regō (third conjugation) and audiō (fourth conjugation) is as follows:


THIRD CONJUGATION

Person & Number Latin Word English Meaning
1st singular regam I shall rule
2nd singular regēs you will rule
3rd singular reget he/she/it will rule
1st plural regēmus we shall rule
2nd plural regētis you (all) will rule
3rd plural regent they will rule

a. Observe that the future of the third conjugation is like the present of the second, except in the first person singular.


FOURTH CONJUGATION

Person & Number Latin Word English Meaning
1st singular audiam I shall hear
2nd singular audiēs you will hear
3rd singular audiet he/she/it will hear
1st plural audiēmus we shall hear
2nd plural audiētis you (all) will hear
3rd plural audient they will hear


Exercises

Print Lesson 30 Exercises

237. Inflect the present, imperfect, and future indicative active of convocō, teneō, dīcō, and mūniō.


238. Derivation. Latin prepositions are often used as prefixes and added to simple verbs to make compound verbs. These same prefixes appear in English and generally have the same meanings as in Latin.

Form English derivatives from each of the following Latin compounds, and note the force of the prefix:

    ab, from + dūcō, lead = abdūcō, lead away

    ad, to + dūcō, lead = addūcō, lead to

    , down or from + dūcō, lead = dēdūcō, lead down or from

    ē, out of + dūcō, lead = ēdūcō, lead out of

    in, into + dūcō, lead = indūcō, lead into


THĒSEUS ET MĪNŌTAURUS1

Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
animus, -ī (m) 1 mind, spirit, heart animated, unanimous
gerō, gerere to wage, carry on; wear belligerent
indūcō, indūcere to lead in or against induce, inductive
mittō, mittere to send mission, remit
poena, -ae (f) punishment; poenam dare, to suffer punishment, pay a penalty penalty, penalize, subpoena


239. Ōlim2 Mīnōs, quī īnsulam Crētam regēbat, bellum cum Graecīs gerēbat. Graecī magnō animō pugnant, sed Mīnōs eōs crēbrīs proeliīs superat. Tum Mīnōs dīcit: "Nunc, Graecī, victōria est mea et servī meī estis. Nunc iniūriīs3 vestrīs poenam dabitis magnam. Quotannīs4 ad patriam meam septem5 puerōs et septem puellās mittētis. Cum eīs ad ōrās altae Crētae nāvigābitis. Eōs in labyrinthum1 indūcēmus. Tum barbarus Mīnōtaurus veniet. Eum vidēbunt et audient et timēbunt. Amīcōs suōs vocābunt, sed quis ad eōs auxilia portābit? Sine cōnsiliō,6 sine armīs vītam suam Mīnōtaurō barbarō dabunt. Ea, Graecī, erit poena vestra. Quid dīcitis?"

1 Theseus (Thēsūs) and the Minotaur. The Minotaur was a fabulous monster, which lived on the island of Crete in the Labyrinth, a structure containing so many rooms and winding passages that nobody could get out of it. The Minotaur fed on human flesh.
2Once upon a time
3Ablative of cause.
4every year
5seven
6resource


240. 1. The wretched men will-suffer punishment. 2. Whither will Minos lead the boys and girls? 3. He-will-lead them1 to his island. 4. The forces will-wage war with great spirit.

1 Use the masculine form.



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