Elements of Latin Lesson 27
The Present Indicative Active of the Fourth Conjugation

Cum grānō salis — With a grain of salt
From Pliny. An expression used to indicate that the real facts have been exaggerated: as, "That story must be taken cum grano salis."

217. Verbs having the infinitive termination -īre belong to the Fourth Conjugation: as, audiō, audīre (to hear), present stem audī- (cf. § 155)


218. The present indicative active of audiō is inflected as follows:

Personal Endings
1st sing. audiō
I hear
2nd sing. audīs
you hear
-s
3rd sing. audit
he, she, it hears
-t
1st plural audīmus
we hear
-mus
2nd plural audītis
you all hear
-tis
3rd plural audiunt
they hear
-nt

  a. Note that , the characteristic vowel, is always long except where long vowels are regularly shortened (cf. 194). In the third person plural u is inserted between the stem and the personal ending: as, audi-u-nt


Exercises

Print Lesson 27 Exercises

219. Like audiō, audīre, inflect the present indicative active of veniō, venīre, come; and mūniō, mūnīre, fortify


220. 1. Nūntiābunt, venītis, habēbat, mūnīs.   2. Vidēbātis, audīmus, timēbit, veniunt.   3. Dabit, tenēbunt, nūntiās, parābās, mūniunt.


DĒ CASTRĪS RŌMĀNĪS

Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
audiō, -īre to hear, listen to audible, audience, audition
fossa, -ae (f) ditch fosse, fossil
medius, -a, -um middle, middle part of medium, mediocre, media
mūniō, -īre fortify munition, ammunition, community, immune
quī, quae, quod who, which
vāllum, ī (n) palisade, wall (of a camp)
veniō, -īre to come advent, convention, invent


Castra Romana


221. Vidētisne castra Rōmāna? Castra sunt magna, et quattuor1 portās2 habent. Per eās portās Rōmānī in castra veniunt et ex eīs portīs cōpiās suās dūcunt. In castrīs multōs virōs et equōs vidēmus. Vidēmus virōs quī in armīs sunt et virōs quī magnā dīligentiā labōrant. Eī quī labōrant castra mūniunt. Rōmānī castra sua alto vāllō et altā fossā semper mūniunt. Vidētisne eōs quī terram ex fossā portant? Barbarī castra sua nōn mūniunt, itaque vīta eōrum multīs perīculīs patet. Sed Rōmānī sine perīculō castra sua tenent nec3 barbarōs timent. In mediīs castrīs est praetōrium4. Idne vidētis? Is quī cōpiās Rōmānās dūcit est clārus vir. Saepe suōs convocat. Nunc eīs dīcit5 et eī eum audiunt.

1 four   2 gates   3 nor   4 general's tent   5 is talking


     


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