Elements of Latin Lesson 22:
Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Active of the Second Conjugation

Virtūs praemium est optimum — Virtue is the best prize.
From Plautus, a writer of Latin plays

188. Formation of Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Active. Verbs having the infinitive termination -ēre, such as monēre, belong to the Second Conjugation.


189. The present, imperfect, and future of the second conjugation, as of the first, are formed on the present stem.


190. The present stem of the second conjugation ends in (§ 155). This characteristic vowel appears in every form of the present, imperfect, and future.


191. The same personal endings and the same tense signs are used as in the first conjugation.


192. Inflection of Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Active. The inflection below shows the present, imperfect, and future indicative active of vocō (I call) of the first conjugation and of moneō, (I advise or warn) of the second. Review the forms of vocō and learn the corresponding tenses of moneō.

vocō, vocāre

(Present Stem = vocā)

PRESENT

vocō
I call
vocāmus
we call
vocās
you call
vocātis
you (all) call
vocat
he/she/it calls
vocant
they call


IMPERFECT

vocābam
I was calling, used to call
vocābāmus
we were calling, used to call
vocābās
you were calling, used to call
vocābātis
you (all) were calling, used to call
vocābat
he/she/it was calling, used to call
vocābant
they were calling, used to call


FUTURE

vocābō
I shall call
vocābimus
we shall call
vocābis
you will call
vocābitis
you (all) will call
vocābit
he/she/it will call
vocābunt
they will call


moneō, monēre

(Present Stem = monē)

PRESENT

moneō
I advise
monēmus
we advise
monēs
you advise
monētis
you (all) advise
monet
he/she/it advises
monent
they advise


IMPERFECT

monēbam
I was advising, used to advise
monēbāmus
we were advising, used to advise
monēbās
you were advising, used to advise
monēbātis
you (all) were advising, used to advise
monēbat
he/she/it was advising, used to advise
monēbant
they were advising, used to advise


FUTURE

monēbō
I shall advise
monēbimus
we shall advise
monēbis
you will advise
monēbitis
you (all) will advise
monēbit
he/she/it will advise
monēbunt
they will advise


193. Nearly all regular verbs ending in -eō belong to the Second Conjugation.


194. Shortening of Vowels. Attention has been called to the shortening of long vowels in certain forms. The following rules are of general application:

  • A long vowel is shortened before another vowel. Thus, monēō becomes moneō.
  • A long vowel is shortened before -nt and -nd, before final -m or -t, and, except in words of one syllable, before final -l or -r. Thus, vocant, vocandus, vocābam, vocābat, monet.


Exercises

Print Lesson 22 Exercises

Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
numquam never
nunc now
sine without sinecure


195. Like moneō, inflect the present, imperfect, and future of:

Latin Verb English Translation English Derivative
habeō, habēre have habit
teneō, tenēre hold, keep tenacious
timeō, timēre fear timid
videō, vidēre see vision, evident


196. 1. Tenētis, vocābitis, habēbant.   2. Vidēbunt, monēbāmus, nārrābat.   3. Habēbō, timēs, vocātis   4. Vidēsne altās ōrās īnsulae?   5. Numquam, Rōmānī, sine auxiliō sociōrum nostrōrum praemia victōriae tenēbimus.
Take a QUIZ on the Future Tense!


     

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