Elements of Latin Lesson 21:
Future Indicative Active of the First Conjugation

Montānī semper līberī — Mountaineers are always free
Motto of the State of West Virginia. The verb to be is omitted in this motto, as in many others.

183. Formation of Future Indicative Active. The tense sign of the future in the first conjugation is -bi-. This is added to the present stem and followed by the personal endings.

Present Stem
Tense Sign
Personal Ending

184. Inflection of Future Indicative Active. The first person singular ends in -bō, the i of the tense sign disappearing. In the third person plural -bi- becomes -bu-.

  • vocā, I shall call
  • vocābis, you will call
  • vocābit, he will call
  • vocābimus, we shall call
  • vocābitis, you will call
  • vocābunt, they will call
  a. Note that the inflection is somewhat like that of erō (170), the future of sum


Print Lesson 21 Exercises

Special Vocabulary

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
miser, misera, miserum wretched miserable, miser
ōra, -ae (f) shore, coast
praemium, -ī (n) prize, reward premium
proelium, -ī (n) battle
superō, superāre to overcome, conquer superable, insuperable

185. Translate from Latin to English:

1. Quis fābulam īnsulae1 Britanniae nārrābit?   2. Cūr, mī fīlī, Britannī erant miserī?   3. Bellīs crēbrīs Britannī erant miserī.   4. Erantne ōrae īnsulae1 altae2? Altae erant.   5. Britannī Gallīs, sociīs suīs, auxilium saepe dant.   6. Itaque Rōmānī magnīs cum copiīs ad ōrās altās īnsulae nāvigābunt.   7. Iam Rōmānī barbarōs multīs proeliīs3 superābunt.   8. Magna erunt praemia victōriae.   9. Tum īnsula erit Rōmānōrum.

1. Genitive   2. Predicate adjective, nominative plural   3. Ablative of means

186. 1. The shore of-the-island, nearest to-Gaul, is high.   2. We-shall-fight with the hostile savages1 in the great forests.   3. Our friends will-be wretched because-of-the-dangers2 of-the-battle.   4. You-will-conquer the Britons, O Romans, with-your long spears3.   5. Soon (iam) the Romans will-give great rewards to-their allies.

1. Ablative of accompanimnet   2. Ablative of cause   3. Ablative of means

187. Inflect in the future indicative active the verbs given in 161.



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