Elements of Latin Lesson 18:
In #1, with denotes cause, i.e. with grain means because of grain.
In #2, with denotes means, i.e. with his spear means by means of his spear.
In #3, with denotes accompaniment, i.e. Julia is not living alone but in company with Cornelia.
In #4, with denotes manner, i.e. with great industry tells how Galba works.
These four meanings of with are expressed in Latin by four different constructions of the ablative, known as the Ablative of Cause, Ablative of Means, Ablative of Accompaniment, and Ablative of Manner.
165. Rule for the Ablative of Cause. Cause is denoted by the ablative, usually without a preposition, and answers the question Because of what?
166. Rule for the Ablative of Means. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This ablative answers the question By means of what? With what?
167. Rule for the Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This ablative answers the question In company with whom?
168. Rule for Ablative of Manner. Manner is denoted by the ablative with cum. Cum may be omitted if an adjective is used with the ablative. This ablative answers the question How? In what manner?
But remember: cum is optional if there is an adjective modifying the noun. So:
169. What uses of the ablative do you discover in the following passage and what question does each answer?
|The day after the battle we retreated with all our forces. The roads were deep with mud and the men were weary with fighting. To make matters worse, aviators attacked our crowded ranks with bombs. The machines flew low, but with such speed that we could not hit them. At last with a sigh of relief we entered a forest so thick with trees that we were well protected by the branches. Many wretched refugees with their wives and children sought shelter there.|