Elements of Latin Lesson 17: 
The Four Conjugations, Present Indicative Active of the First Conjugation

Vōx populī vōx Deī — The voice of the people is the voice of God
A Latin slogan.

153. Four Regular Conjugations. There are four regular conjugations of verbs. These conjugations are distinguished from one another by the distinguishing, or characteristic, vowel appearing at the end of the present stem.


154. The present stem of each conjugation is found by dropping -re, the ending of the present infinitive active, which is given in the vocabularies.


155. Below are given the present indicative and the present infinitive active of a verb of each conjugation, the infinitive showing the present stem with its distinguishing vowel. These are the first two of the principal parts of the verb.

Conjugation Present
Indicative
Present
Infinitive
Present
Stem
Distinguishing
Vowel
I vocō
I call
vocāre
to call
vocā- ā
II moneō
I advise
monēre
to advise
monē- ē
III regō
I rule
regere
to rule
rege- e
IV audiō
I hear
audīre
to hear
audī- ī


156. From the present stem are formed the present, imperfect, and future tenses.


157. Present Indicative Active of First Conjugation. Verbs having the infinitive termination -āre, such as vocāre, belong to the First Conjugation.


158. The present indicative is inflected by adding the personal endings to the present stem. The distinguishing vowel disappears in the first person singular, and is shortened before the endings -t and -nt in the third person singular and plural.


159. The inflection of vocō, vocāre (present stem vocā-), call, in the present indicative active is as follows:

Person Singular Personal Endings Plural Personal Endings
1st vocō
I call
vocāmus
we call
-mus
2nd vocās
you call
-s vocātis
you call
-tis
3rd vocat
he/she/it calls
-t vocant
they call
-nt


160. Translation of Present. English has three forms for the present tense: I call, I am calling, I do call. Latin has but one form, vocō; this is used for any one of the three English forms.


Exercises

Print Lesson 17 Exercises

161. Inflect the present indicative of the following verbs, all of which you have had before:

amō, I love amāre, to love
convocō, I call together convocāre, to call together
, I give dare, to give
habitō, I dwell, live habitāre, to dwell, live
labōrō, I toil labōrāre, to toil
nārrō, I tell nārrāre, to tell
nāvigō, I sail nāvigāre, to sail
occupō, I seize occupāre, to seize
parō, I prepare parāre, to prepare
portō, I carry portāre, to carry
properō, I hasten properāre, to hasten
pugnō, I fight pugnāre, to fight

Note. In dō, dare, the a of the present stem is short. The only indicative form of having the stem vowel long is dās, you give, second person singular of the present.


162. Translate each of the following forms and give its voice, mood, tense, person, and number. When translating a verb, note first the personal ending.

1. occupāmus, properātis, convocant.   2. Datis, labōrās, pugnātis.   3. Parās, portat, amāmus.   4. Nārrat, dant, properat.   5. Occupātis, nāvigās, portant.   6. Habitātis, labōrant, dās.


163. 1. We-dwell, we-are-dwelling, we-do-dwell.   2. You-seize (singular), you-are-seizing, you-do-seize.   3. We-do-carry, they-are-laboring, we-hasten.   4. He-is-giving, he-calls-together, you-are-sailing.   5. They-do-fight, he-carries, we-are-leaving.


     

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