Elements of Latin Lesson 14
Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions;
the Dative with Adjectives

Nōn scholae, sed vītae discimus — We learn not for school, but for life
From Seneca, a Roman philosopher.

126. Masculine Adjectives in -er. Not all masculine adjectives of the second declension end in -us, like bonus, but some end in -er and are declined like ager or puer (§ 102). The feminine and neuter nominatives show which model to follow.

127. Declension of līber, lībera, līberum, free:

Singular Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. līber lībera līberum
Gen. līberī līberae līberī
Dat. līberō līberae līberō
Acc. līberum līberam līberum
Abl. līberō līberā līberō
Nom. līberī līberae lībera
Gen. līberōrum līberārum līberōrum
Dat. līberīs līberīs līberīs
Acc. līberōs līberās lībera
Abl. līberīs līberīs līberīs

128. Declension of pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, pretty:

Singular Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. pulcher pulchra pulchrum
Gen. pulchrī pulchrae pulchrī
Dat. pulchrō pulchrae pulchrō
Acc. pulchrum pulchram pulchrum
Abl. pulchrō pulchrā pulchrō
Nom. pulchrī pulchrae pulchra
Gen. pulchrōrum pulchrārum pulchrōrum
Dat. pulchrīs pulchrīs pulchrīs
Acc. pulchrōs pulchrās pulchra
Abl. pulchrīs pulchrīs pulchrīs

129. Dative with Adjectives. We learned in (§ 53) for what sort of expressions we may expect the dative, and in (§ 57) that one of its commonest uses is with verbs to express the indirect object. It is also very common with adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective is directed. In English this dative would be in the objective case after the preposition to or for: as, near to town, fit for service.

130. Rule for Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites.

Fābula est grāta Lesbiae.
The story is pleasing to Lesbia.

Ager est proximus oppidō.
The field is nearest to the town.

   a. Among such adjectives are:

amīcus, -a, -um friendly (to)
inimīcus, -a, -um hostile (to)
grātus, -a, -um pleasing (to)
proximus, -a, -um nearest (to)


Print Lesson 14 Fābula

First learn the special vocabulary:

Latin Word
Related Words
altus, -a, -um high; deep; lofty altitude, exalt
amīcus, -a, -um friendly amicable, amiable
grātus, -a, -um pleasing grateful
inimīcus, -a, -um unfriendly, hostile inimical, enemy
īnsula, -ae, f. island insulate, peninsula
līber, lībera, līberum free liberal, liberate
nāvigat he/she/it sails navigate, navigation
proximus, -a, -um nearest, very near approximate, proximity
sed, conj. but

131. Galba agricola in agrīs pulchrīs habitat, Quīntus in oppidō magnō et nōtō habitat; sed Mārcus nauta in īnsulā parvā habitat. Parva īnsula est pulchra et grāta Mārcō nautae. Terra est grāta Galbae et Quīntō, sed Mārcus altās aquās amat. Īnsula parva Mārcī nautae est proxima agrīs pulchrīs Galbae agricolae. Mārcus ab īnsulā parvā ad terram saepe nāvigat et per agrōs pulchrōs ad parvam casam Galbae agricolae properat. Lesbia, fīlia Galbae, Mārcō nautae frūmentum saepe dat et Mārcus frūmentum ā terrā ad parvam īnsulam portat. Lesbia est Mārcō nautae amīca sed inimīca Quīntō. Agrī nōn grātī Quīntō sunt. Quīntus arma et tēla et bella amat. Estne Mārcus servus? Nōn est. Mārcus est līber.

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