Elements of Latin Lesson 13
Adjectives of the first and second declensions; adverbs

Parvum parva decent — Small things become the small
From Horace, Rome's greatest Lyric poet.

120. Adjectives of First and Second Declensions. The complete declesion of bonus, -a, -um:

Singular Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. bonus bona bonum
Gen. bonī bonae bonī
Dat. bonō bonae bonō
Acc. bonum bonam bonum
Abl. bonō bonā bonō
Nom. bonī bonae bona
Gen. bonōrum bonārum bonōrum
Dat. bonīs bonīs bonīs
Acc. bonōs bonās bona
Abl. bonīs bonīs bonīs

   Note. Learn to recite and to write the forms of adjectives across the page, thus giving the three genders for each case. Make a blank scheme of the declension above and use it for drill on a variety of adjecives.

a. Decline magnus, -a, -um; parvus, -a, -um; novus, -a, -um.

121. The agreement between an adjective and its noun does not mean that they must have the same termination. Often the adjective and the noun belong to different declensions and hence have different terminations; for example, nauta, sailor, being a mascline noun, requires the masculine form of the adjective in agreement. But the masculine adjective bonus belongs to the second declension, while nauta belongs to the first; hence, a good sailor is nauta bonus. Learn to decline nouns and adjectives together as follows:

nauta bonus (bases naut- bon-), M., the good sailor

Nom. nauta bonus nautae bonī
Gen. nautae bonī nautārum bonōrum
Dat. nautae bonō nautīs bonīs
Acc. nautam bonum nautās bonōs
Abl. nautā bonō nautīs bonīs

122. Adverbs. An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
   Most adverbs answer the questions How? Where? When? To what degree?

123. Position of Adverbs. Adverbs, unless emphatic, stand directly before the words which they modify: as,

Rēgīna Galbae pecūniam saepe dat.
The queen often gives money to Galba.

Interrogative words (where? when? why? etc.) regularly stand first, as in English. Other adverbs, when emphatic, stand in some unusual position.


Print Lesson 13 Exercises

First learn the special vocabulary:

Latin Word
Related Words
fāma, -ae (f) rumor, report, reputation fame, famous, infamous
longus, -a, -um long longitude, prolong
multus, -a, -um much, many multitude, multiply
nōtus, -a, -um known, well-known, famous noted, notable
saepe often
tēlum, -ī (n) weapon, missile, spear
via, -ae (f) way, road via (by way of)

124. 1. Agricola bonus est in magnō agrō.  2. Mārcus nauta est amīcus agricolae bonī.  3. Mārcus agricolae bonō auxilium saepe dat.  4. Amatne Mārcus agricolam bonum?  5. Quō Mārcus cum Galbā, agricolā bonō, properat? In nōtum oppidum.  6. Agricolae bonī multum frūmentum per longās viās portant.  7. Suntne agrī agricolārum bonōrum magnī? Sunt.  8. Virī oppidī nōtī agricolīs bonīs pecūniam saepe dant.  9. Cūr populī oppidōrum nōtōrum agricolās bonōs convocant? Oppida nōta longum bellum parant.  10. Sociī nōtae rēgīnae cum agricolīs bonīs labōrant.

125. 1. Are the new spears long? No.  2. In the new lands are many famous towns.  3. The reputation of-the-new town is good.  4. The road through the good farmer's fields is new.

Review Vocabulary Lessons 1-13


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