Elements of Latin Lesson 12: 
Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions

Semper fidēlis — Always faithful
Motto of the United States marines.

115. Adjectives of First and Second Declensions. We have seen that feminine adjectives in -a, like bona, are declined like aqua (§ 90). So masculine adjectives in -us, such as bonus, are declined like servus; and neuter adjectives in -um, such as bonum, are declined like oppidum. For this reason such adjectives are called Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.

116. The adjective and noun, masculine and neuter, are declined as follows:

servus bonus (bases serv- bon-), M., the good slave

Nom. servus bonus -us servī bonī
Gen. servī bonī servōrum bonōrum -ōrum
Dat. servō bonō servīs bonīs -īs
Acc. servum bonum -um servōs bonōs -ōs
Abl. servō bonō servīs bonīs -īs

oppidum bonum (bases oppid- bon-), N., the good town

Nom. oppidum bonum -um oppida bona -a
Gen. oppidī bonī oppidōrum bonōrum -ōrum
Dat. oppidō bonō oppidīs bonīs -īs
Acc. oppidum bonum -um oppida bona -a
Abl. oppidō bonō oppidīs bonīs -īs

    Decline together equus parvus, the small horse; bellum magnum, the great war.

117. Genitive of Nouns in -ius and -ium. Nouns in -ius and -ium end in in the genitive, not in -iī, and the accent remains on the same syllable as in the nominative: nominative fī'lius (son), genitive fīlī, dative fīliō, etc.; nominative auxilium (aid), genitive auxilī, dative auxiliō, etc.


Print Lesson 12 Exercises

First learn the special vocabulary:

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
auxilium, auxilī, n. aid auxiliary
bellum, -ī, n. war belligerent
fīlius, fīlī, m. son filial, affiliate
frūmentum, -ī, n. grain
magnus, -a, -um great, large magnitude, magnify
novus, -a, -um new novel, novelty
parat he (she, it) prepares compare, repair
socius, -a, -um ally, companion associate, society


118. MĀRCUS: Quid, fīlī, servī Galbae agricolae in magnum oppidum portant?

FĪLIUS: Frūmentum, Mārce, servī Galbae agricolae in magnum oppidum portant. Rēgīna magnī oppidī populum ad arma vocat. Rēgīna novum et magnum bellum parat. Arma et frūmentum et pecūniam, auxilia bellī, parat.

M: Ubi sunt bonī fīliī pulchrae rēgīnae?

F: Cum sociīs, Mārce, fīliī rēgīnae sunt.

M: Dantne sociī bonae rēgīnae auxilium?

F: Dant. Sociī arma nova et pecūniam magnam rēgīnae dant.

M: Estne, fīlī, terra rēgīnae pulchra?

F: Pulchra et magna est terra rēgīnae. Populus oppidī bonam rēgīnam et pulchram terram amat.

119. The arms of-the-new ally are good.   2. The sons of-the-allies do-give great assistance to-the-people of-the-small towns.  3. The farmers are-toiling in the new fields.  4. Why, (my) son, is the good queen calling the people together?  5. Are the new allies preparing grain? Yes.


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