Elements of Latin Lesson 10:
Second Declension (Continued); Apposition

Sīc semper tyrannīs — Thus ever to tyrants
Motto of the state of Virginia.

102. Declension of Nouns in -er. Masculine nouns in -er of the second declension are declined as follows:

Nom. puer ager puerī agrī
Gen. puerī agrī puerōrum agrōrum -ōrum
Dat. puerō agrō -ō puerīs agrīs -īs
Acc. puerum agrum -um puerōs agrōs -ōs
Abl. puerō agrō puerīs agrīs -īs

a. Nouns in -er are declined just like servus, except that they have no termination -us in the nominative singular.

b. In puer the e appears in each case; in ager it appears only in the nominative singular. Most nouns in -er are declined like ager. The genitive singular shows whether the noun follows puer or ager.

c. The noun vir, man, is declined like puer: vir, virī, virō, etc.

103. Apposition. Observe the following sentences:

Mārcus nauta ad casam properat.
Marcus, the sailor, hastens to the cottage.

Galba Mārcum nautam amat.
Galba loves Marcus, the sailor.

In each sentence the word sailor is added to Marcus to explain who he is. A noun explaining another noun, and signifying the same person or thing, is called an appositive, and is said to be in apposition. A noun and its appositive agree in case.

104. Rule for Apposition. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains.


Print Lesson 10 Exercises

First learn this special vocabulary:

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
ager, agrī, m. field acre, agrarian
labōrat he (she, it) toils labor, laboratory
portat he (she, it) carries porter, portable
puer, puerī, m. boy puerile
quid? what?
quis? who?
vir, virī, m. man virile, virtue


105. SEXTUS. Ubi, Quīnte, servī Galbae agricolae labōrant? QUĪNTUS. In agrīs, Sexte, servī Galbae agricolae labōrant.

S. Quis per agrōs ad servōs properat?

Q. Lesbia, fīlia Galbae agricolae, per agrōs ad servōs properat.

S. Quid Lesbia, pulchra fīlia Galbae agricolae, portat?

Q. Aquam, Sexte, Lesbia portat. Aquam servīs Lesbia dat et servī Lesbiam, bonam fīliam Galbae agricolae, amant.

106. 1. Who lives with the friends of-Marcus the sailor? 2. What are the boys' horses carrying, Sextus? 3. Who is-telling stories to-Lesbia, Galba's little daughter? 4. Whither are the men carrying water?

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