Elements of Latin Lesson 9: 
Second Declension; Vocative Case

Fit via vī — Energy wins the way
From Vergil, a Roman poet. Literally, A way is made by force.

96. Second Declension. Nouns ending in in the genitive singular belong to the Second Declension.

97. Gender and Declension Nominatives of the second declension ending in -us or -er are masculine; those ending in -um are neuter.

   Thus, servus, slave, and ager, field, are masculine; but oppidum, town, is neuter.

   Masculine nouns in -us are declined as follows:

Nom. servus -us servī
Gen. servī servōrum -ōrum
Dat. servō servīs -īs
Acc. servum -um servōs -ōs
Abl. servō servīs -īs

  Note. In learning all declensions, follow the suggestions given in 72.

a. Some Latin words ending in -us have passed into English without change and form the plural in : as, alumnus, alumni; syllabus, syllabi; focus, foci; radius, radii; stimulus, stimuli; narcissus, narcissi. Consult the dictionary for the meaning of these words.

98. Vocative Case. A noun used to address or call a person is in the vocative case (from Latin vocō, I call)). The form of the vocative is regularly the same as the nominative, but the vocative singular of nouns in -us of the second declension ends in -e: as, serve, O slave; Mārce, O Marcus.

99. In English the name of the person addressed often stands first. The Latin vocative rarely stands first.

Lesbia, the cottage is small.
Casa, Lesbia, est parva.


Print Lesson 9 Exercises

100. 1. Quō nauta properat?  2. Nauta ad parvam casam Galbae properat.  3. Ubi est Galba?  4. Galba cum Lesbiā et cum amīcīs Lesbiae in casā parvā est.  5. Agricola parvīs puellīs bonās fābulās nārrat.  6. Ubi, Mārce, est servus agricolae?  7. Servus agricolae equīs aquam dat.  8. Aqua est bona et equī bonam aquam amant.

101. 1. Marcus, Galba is-calling the slaves.  2. Slaves, where are the horses?  3. The horses, Galba, are-hastening to the cottage.  4. The water of-the-cottage is good.  5. The slaves are friends of-the-horses.


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