Elements of Latin Lesson 7
Prepositions

Mēns Sāna in corpore sānō — A sound mind in a sound body
From Juvenal, a Roman poet.

77. While many relations expressed in English by prepositions are in Latin expressed by case forms, still prepositions are of frequent occurrence, but only with the accusative or ablative.


78. Prepositions with Accusative. The relations to, into, and through in expressions of motion are expressed in Latin by the prepositions ad, in, and per, with the accusative.

Nauta ad aquam properat
the sailor hastens toward the water

Nauta in aquam properat
the sailor hastens into the water

Nauta per aquam properat
the sailor hastens through the water


79. Prepositions with Ablative. The relations from the side of, in company with, and in or on are expressed in Latin by the prepositions ā or ab, cum, and in, with the ablative.

Nauta ab aquā properat
the sailor hastens from the water

Nauta cum Galbā properat
the sailor hastens with Galba

Nauta in aquā est
the sailor is in (or on) the water

NOTE. The preposition ā is used only before words beginning with a consonant, ab before either vowels or consonants.


80. The meanings of ā (or ab), ad, in, and per are illustrated by the following diagram, the square representing the place in question:


EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary:

ā, ab
prep. with ablative
from
ad
prep. with accusative
to, toward (expressing motion)
aqua
water aquarium, aqueduct
cum
prep. with ablative
with
in
prep. with accusative
into, onto; against
in
prep. with ablative
in, on
nauta
sailor nautical
per
prep. with accusative
through
terra
earth terrace, terrestrial

Print the following exercises in PDF format.

81. 1. Nautae aquam amant; agricolae terram amant.

2. Nauta cum fīliābus rēgīnae ab terrā ad aquam properat.

3. Fīliae rēgīnae in (on) aquā sunt.

4. Nautae per aquās properant.

5. Agricola fīliābus rēgīnae aquam dat.

6. Puellae agricolārum in terrā sunt.

82. 1. Lesbia hastens from the land to the water.

2. The sailors are in the water.

3. Galba is with the farmers' daughters.

4. The queens' daughters hasten through the land.


First Review of Vocabulary and Grammar


I AM OF THE OPINION THAT THE VALUE OF CLASSICAL STUDIES IS SERIOUSLY UNDERESTIMATED TODAY. WHOLLY OUTSIDE OF THEIR ACKNOWLEDGED LITERARY VALUE, CLASSICAL STUDIES CULTIVATE THE POWER OF EXPRESSION AND A DISCRIMINATING USE OF WORDS ESSENTIAL TO CLEARNESS OF THINKING. - HERBERT C. HOOVER

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