Elements of Latin Lesson 5
The Dative Case; Indirect Object; Predicate Noun

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Bis dat quī cito dat — He gives twice who gives quickly
From Andrea Alciati, an Italian author of maxims.

52. Dative Case. In English many relationships between words are expressed by to, for, from, with, in, at, and the like. These are called prepositions. Latin, too, often makes a similar use of prepositions, but frequently expresses such relationships by means of case forms that English does not possess. One of these cases is called the Da'tive.

53. The dative case is used after verbs and adjectives to express the relation conveyed in English by the prepositions to or for somebody or something.

He gave the money to John
She was kind to him
They are ready for war
He is no match for you

NOTE. To or for in expressions of motion, like He went to New York, He sailed for Europe, are not denoted by the dative.

54. What dative relations do you discover in the following?

To Captain Smith was given the cross of war, an honor great enough for any man. He was always ready for action and was equal to all demands. To him nothing seemed impossible. No wonder the general said to him," France gives to you an honor well deserved."

55. Case Endings of Dative. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the dative singular ends in -ae and the dative plural in -īs.

NOTE. The genitive singular, the dative singular, and the nominative plural have the same ending, -ae; but the uses of the three cases are different.

56. Indirect Object. In English the person to whom something is given, told, refused, etc. is called the indirect object.

The queen gives money to the girl (or gives the girl money)

57. The indirect object is clearly a dative relation (§ 53) and is expressed in Latin by the dative case.

Rēgīna puellae pecūniam dat

58. Rule for Dative of Indirect Object. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative.

59. The indirect object may either precede or follow the direct object.

60. Predicate Noun. A noun standing in the predicate, describing or defining the subject and connected with it by some form of the verb to be, is called a predicate noun.

Galba est agricola
Galba is a farmer

61. Rule for Predicate Noun. A predicate noun agrees with the subject in case.


Print Lesson 5 Exercises

62. Write the nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative, singular and plural, of the nouns agricola, rēgīna, puella.

First learn the special vocabulary:

Latin Word Meaning Related Words
he (she, it) gives, is giving data, dative
he (she, it) is essence, essential
story fable, fabulous
he (she, it) tells narrate, narrative
money pecuniary, impecunious
they are

63. 1. Puella est rēgīna. 2. Puellae sunt rēgīnae. 3. Agricola properat. 4. Agricolae properant. 5. Fīliae agricolārum rēgīnam vocant. 6. Fīlia agricolae rēgīnam vocat. 7. Rēgīna puellīs agricolae pecūniam dat. 8. Fīliae rēgīnae fābulās puellīs agricolārum nārrant.

64. 1. The queen is a farmer's daughter. 2. The girls give the farmers' money to-the-queen. 3. The girl is-telling the queen's daughter a story. 4. The girl loves the queen's daughter. 5. The girls are daughters of-farmers.

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