Elements of Latin Lesson 3:
Forms and Position

Fiat lux
Let there be light

From the Latin translation of the Bible.

39. English and Latin Compared. Observe the following sentences:

Galba loves his daughter

His daughter loves Galba

The nouns Galba and daughter have the same form in both these sentences, although the noun that is the subject in the one becomes the object in the other. In other words, the nominative and the objective case are alike in English, and the only way to distinguish them is by the order of the words.

In the Latin of this sentence no doubt can arise, for the subject ends in -a and the object in -am, and this remains true no matter in what order the words are written.

Gal'ba a'mat fī'liam
Fī'liam a'mat Gal'ba
A'mat Gal'ba fī'liam
Gal'ba fī'liam a'mat
Galba loves his daughter

As you see, all these arrangements mean the same thing. The form of the Latin noun, therefore, and not its position in the sentence, shows its use.

40. Position of Subject and Verb. The subject of a short, disconnected sentence generally stands first; the verb, last. But est, is, and other forms of the verb to be usually stand, as in English, between the subject and a noun or adjective in the predicate : as,

Gal'ba est agri'cola:
Galba is a farmer

41. Position of Genitive. The genitive may stand either before or after the noun to which it belongs : as, Gal'bae fī'lia or fī'lia Gal'bae, Galba’s daughter.


42. Learn the following words so that you can give the English for the Latin or the Latin for the English:

agri'cola farmer
fī'lia daughter
puel'la girl
rēgī'na queen
a'mat loves, is-loving
pro'perat hastens, is-hastening
vo'cat calls, is-calling


Print Lesson 3 Exercises

NOTE. In translating a Latin genitive into English we may use either the preposition of and the noun, or its possessive case: as, fīlia rēgīnae, the daughter of the queen, or the queen's daughter.


Latin Audio
Practice Sentences
1. Rēgīna puellam amat.
2. Puella rēgīnam amat.
3. Fīlia agricolae properat.
4. Puella fīliam agricolae vocat.
5. Fīlia agricolae puellam amat.
6. Rēgīna agricolam vocat, agricola properat.


Latin Answers
English Practice Sentences
1. The farmer is-calling (his) daughter.
2. The daughter is-calling the farmer.
3. The girl loves the queen's daughter.
4. The queen's daughter calls the girl.
5. The queen is-hastening.

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