Caesar Bellum Gallicum 1.1

I. DESCRIPTIO GALLIAE

Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs; quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquītānī, tertiam quī ipsōrum linguā Celtae, nostrā Gallī appellantur. Hī omnēs linguā, īnstitūtīs, lēgibus inter sē differunt. Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna flūmen, ā Belgīs Mātrona et Sēquana dīvidit. Hōrum omnium fortissimī sunt Belgae, proptereā quod ā cultū atque hūmānitāte prōvinciae longissimē absunt, minimēque ad eōs mercātōrēs saepe commeant atque ea, quae ad effēminandōs animōs pertinent, important; proximīque sunt Germānīs, quī trāns Rhēnum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Quā dē causā Helvētiī quoque reliquōs Gallōs virtūte praecēdunt, quod fere cotīdiānīs proeliīs cum Germānīs contendunt, cum aut suīs fīnibus eōs prohibent, aut ipsī in eōrum fīnibus bellum gerunt.

Eōrum ūna pars, quam Gallōs obtinēre dictum est, initium capit ā flūmine Rhodanō; continētur Garumnā flūmine, Ōceanō, fīnibus Belgārum; attingit etiam ab Sēquanīs et Helvētiīs flūmen Rhēnum; vergit ad septentriōnēs. Belgae ab extrēmīs Galliae fīnibus oriuntur; pertinent ad īnferiōrem partem flūminis Rhēnī; spectant in septentriōnem et orientem sōlem. Aquītānia ā Garumnā flūmine ad Pȳrēnaeōs montēs et eam partem Ōceanī, quae est ad Hispāniam, pertinet; spectat inter occāsum sōlis et septentriōnēs.


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Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs; All Gaul is divided into three parts
quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquītānī, tertiam quī ipsōrum linguā Celtae, nostrā Gallī appellantur. of which (parts) one the Belgae inhabit, the second the Aquitani (inhabit), the third those who in their own language are called Celts, in our (language) the Gauls.
Hī omnēs linguā, īnstitūtīs, lēgibus inter sē differunt. These all differ amongst themselves in language, in institutions, and in laws.
Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna flūmen, ā Belgīs Mātrona et Sēquana dīvidit. The Garumna river divides the Gauls from the Aquitani, the Matrona and Sequana (rivers) divide (them) from the Belgae.
Hōrum omnium fortissimī sunt Belgae, Of all these the bravest/strongest are the Belgae,
proptereā quod ā cultū atque hūmānitāte prōvinciae longissimē absunt, especially because they are farthest away from the culture and refinement of the province,
minimēque ad eōs mercātōrēs saepe commeant and least often do merchants travel to them
atque ea, quae ad effēminandōs animōs pertinent, important; and import those things which pertain to weakening courage;
proximīque sunt Germānīs, quī trāns Rhēnum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Nearest they are to the Germans, who dwell across the Rhine, with whom they wage war continuously.
Quā dē causā Helvētiī quoque reliquōs Gallōs virtūte praecēdunt, Therefore the Helvetians also surpass the remaining Gauls in courage,
quod fere cotīdiānīs proeliīs cum Germānīs contendunt, because in almost daily battles they contend with the Germans,
cum aut suīs fīnibus eōs prohibent, aut ipsī in eōrum fīnibus bellum gerunt. because they are either keeping them (Germans) from their own boundaries, or they themselves are waging war in their (i.e. German) territory.
Eōrum ūna pars, quam Gallōs obtinēre dictum est, initium capit ā flūmine Rhodanō; One part of these, which it has bee said that the Gauls control, takes its beginning from the river Rhone;
continētur Garumnā flūmine, Ōceanō, fīnibus Belgārum; it is confined by the Garumna river, by the ocean, by the territory of the Belgae;
attingit etiam ab Sēquanīs et Helvētiīs flūmen Rhēnum; from the Sequani and the Helvetii it touches also the Rhine;
vergit ad septentriōnēs. it faces toward the North.
Belgae ab extrēmīs Galliae fīnibus oriuntur; The Belgae arise from the most remote territory of Gaul;
pertinent ad īnferiōrem partem flūminis Rhēnī; they extend to the lower part of the river Rhine;
spectant in septentriōnem et orientem sōlem. they face toward the North and the East.
Aquītānia ā Garumnā flūmine ad Pȳrēnaeōs montēs et eam partem Ōceanī, quae est ad Hispāniam, pertinet; Aquitania stretches from the Garumna river to the Pyranees mountains and that part of the ocean, which is facing Spain;
spectat inter occāsum sōlis et septentriōnēs. it faces between the West and the North.

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