Lingua Latina 21 
Pugna Discipulorum

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 21. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

Lectio Prima
Lines 1-26

Marcus arrives home from school filthy dirty and bloody from a fight with Sextus. The perfect tense is used to describe the fight and to explain Marcus's condition.

1. Verb Tense: Perfect Active

For active verbs, a stem change usually will indicate the perfect tense. Look for these stem changes:



Present Tense Perfect Tense
he walks
he walked, he has walked
he is silent
he was/has been silent
he leads
he led, he has led
he sends
he sent, he has sent

2. Verb Tense: Perfect Passive

For passives, the perfect tense is a compound verb. It is made up of (1) the perfect participle and (2) the verb sum, esse.


Present Tense Perfect Tense
he is loved
amātus est
he has been loved, was loved
he is held
tentus est
he has been held, was held
he is led
ductus est
he as been led, was led
he is heard
audītus est
he has been heard, was heard

3. Humus, -ī (f) ground

This noun is parallel to domus in how it uses the locative case to express place where, i.e. humī = on the ground.

puerī humī iacēbant.
The boys were lying on the ground.

Lectio Secunda
Lines 27-78

Marcus lies to his father, saying that he was attacked by an angry bull. Julius sees through this at once, and the boy confesses to having been in a fight. He describes the fight to his father using the perfect tense, but now the verbs are first and second person.

4. Perfect Active Personal Endings:

Subject Personal Ending* Translation
ego -ī I ___-ed
-istī you ___-ed
is, ea, id -it he, she, it ___-ed
nōs -imus we ___-ed
vōs -istis you all ___-ed
eī, eae, ea -ērunt (-ēre) they ___-ed

*Remember: These endings are added to the stem of the 3rd principal part.

Practice the tense of verbs with this printable synopsis form. This form is to be used with chapter 21 to practice forming the indicative tenses (present, imperfect, future, and perfect) and the imperatives.

5. Indefinite Pronoun: Aliquis, Aliquid

The indefinite pronoun aliquis, aliquid means someone, something. Orberg gives the meaning of aliquis as nesciō quis (I know not who) and the meaning of aliquid as nesciō quid (I know not what).

It declines as follows:

Case Sing.
Nom. aliquis aliquis aliquid aliquī aliquae aliqua
Acc. aliquem aliquem aliquid aliquōs aliquās aliqua
Gen. alicuius alicuius alicuius aliquōrum aliquārum aliquōrum
Dat. alicui alicui alicui aliquibus aliquibus aliquibus
Abl. aliquō aliquā aliquō aliquibus aliquibus aliquibus

6. Fourth Declension Neuter: Genu & Cornu

Case Singular Plural
Nominative cornū cornua
Accusative cornū cornua
Genitive cornūs cornuum
Dative cornū
Ablative cornū cornibus

Lectio Tertia
Lines 79-149

Marcus lies to his mother, saying that he was a good boy in school. As Marcus, Julius, and Aemilia converse, we learn the perfect passive forms for all persons and numbers. We also learn the perfect forms of the irregular verb sum, esse, fuī.

7. Perfect Tense of Irregular Verb: Sum, Esse, Fuī

Present Tense Imperfect Tense Future Tense Perfect Tense Translation
sum eram erō fuī I was,
I have been
es erās eris fuistī you were,
you have been
est erat erit fuit he was,
he has been
sumus erāmus erimus fuimus we were,
we have been
estis erātis eritis fuistis you all were,
you all have been
sunt erant erunt fuērunt
they were,
they have been

Memorize these forms at

Get a printable list of these forms and translations.

N.B. There are two distinct translations for the perfect tense. Context will tell you which is best in any given sentence. Later on, when we learn the sequence of tenses, this becomes very important.

8. Perfect Passive forms:

Masculine Feminine Nueter
vocātus sum
I was called
I have been called
vocāta sum
I was called,
I have been called
vocātum sum
I was called,
I have been called
vocātus es
you were called,
you have been called
vocāta es
you were called,
you have been called
vocātum es
you were called,
you have been called
vocātus est
he was called,
he has been called
vocāta est
she was called,
she has been called
vocātum est
it was called,
it has been called
vocātī sumus
we were called,
we have been called
vocātae sumus
we were called,
we have been called
vocāta sumus
we were called,
we have been called
vocātī estis
you all were called,
you all have been called
vocātae estis
you all were called,
you all have been called
vocāta estis
you all were called,
you all have been called
vocātī sunt
they were called,
they have been called
vocātae sunt
they were called,
they have been called
vocāta sunt
they were called,
they have been called

N.B. The verb must agree with the subject: vir vocātus est, fēmina vocāta est, mōnstrum vocātum est; virī vocātī sunt, fēminae vocātae sunt, mōnstra vocāta sunt

9. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina Chapter 21

Return to Lingua Latina Home 

Return from Pugna Discipulorum to Teach and Learn Latin Online

Subscribe to Teach and Learn Latin Quarterly: Find new lessons and share your own!
Enter Your E-mail Address
Enter Your First Name (optional)

Don't worry — your e-mail address is totally secure.
I promise to use it only to send you Teach and Learn Latin Quarterly.