Lingua Latina 20 
Parentes

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 20. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the twentieth chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

1. Ablative of Separation: careō, carēre, caruī, ------

One of the main uses of the ablative case is to denote "from". Under this idea of "from" we have the ablative of personal agent and the ablative of place from which. Here also we find the ablative of separation. Words expressing separation or taking away are followed by the ablative, often with the prepositions ā (ab), , and ē (ex).

Thēseus patriam ā Mīnōtaurō līberābit. Theseus will free his fatherland from the Minotaur.
Thēseus patriam perīculō līberābit. Theseus will free his fatherland from danger.

When there is separation of one material thing from another (e.g. from the Minotaur) a preposition is usually used. When the separation is figurative (e.g. from danger) the proposition is usually omitted.

In Lingua Latina, chapter 20, the new verb careō, carēre, caruī, ------ works with an ablative of separation, i.e. the thing lacked is ablative.

exempla:

Pauper pecūniā caret. A poor man lacks money.
Senātor amīcīs carēbat. The senator used to lack friends.
Calvus crīnibus caret. A bald man lacks hair.
Mūcius Scaevola dextrā caruit. Mucius Scaevola lacked his right hand.

N.B. caret, Latin for it is lacking. A mark (^) made in written or printed matter to show the place where something is to be inserted.

2. Future Tense:

This chapter introduces two sets of endings for the future tense. One set of endings is used for verbs of the first and second conjugations (-āre and -ēre).

ACTIVE PASSIVE
I shall... -bō -bor
you will... -bis -beris (-bere)
he/she will... -bit -bitur
we shall... -bimus -bimur
you all will... -bitis -biminī
they will... -bunt -buntur

Another set of endings is used for verbs of the third and fourth conjugations (-ere and -īre)

ACTIVE PASSIVE
I shall... -am -ar
you will... -ēs -ēris (-ēre)
he/she will... -et -ētur
we shall... -ēmus -ēmur
you all will... -ētis -ēminī
they will... -ent -entur

3. The Locative Case: Domus, Rus, Humus

These three nouns do not use prepositions in expressions of place. Rather, the locative case is used to express place where, the accusative expresses place to which, and the ablative expresses place from which.

LOCATIVE domī
at home
rūrī
in the countryside
humī
on the ground
ACCUSATIVE domum
home, to home
rūs
to the countryside
humum
to the ground
ABLATIVE domō
from home
rūre
from the countryside
humō
from the ground

These three words behave as the capitalized names of cities, towns, and small islands, i.e. they take the locative for place where, the accusative for place to which, and the ablative for place from which.

4. Irregular Verbs: Volō and Nōlō

Commit these irregular verbs to memory:

Subject volō, velle
to want, wish, be willing
nōlō, nōlle
to not want, not wish, not be unwilling
ego
I
volō
I want
nōlō
I don't want

you
vīs
you want
nōn vīs
you don't want
is, ea, id
he, she, it
vult
he/she wants
nōn vult
he/she doesn't want
nōs
we
volumus
we want
nōlumus
we don't want
vōs
you all
vultis
you all want
nōn vultis
you all don't want
eī, eae, ea
they
volunt
they want
nōlunt
they don't want

Up to this point in Lingua Latina, we have seen these irregular verbs in the present tense. Soon we will see the imperfect and future, too.

5.

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