Lingua Latina 5:
Villa et Hortus

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 5. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

We learn the structure and layout of Roman villa, or country house. Julius has a beautiful house with a garden (hortus) and peristyle (peristȳlum). We also see plural verbs, plural direct objects, prepositional phrases, and a few new pronouns.

1. Plural Indicative Verbs: -nt

Plural indicative verbs end in -nt. It's that simple. So far we have seen sunt, absunt, and adsunt.

Here are the plural indicative verbs from lectio prima:

habitant they live, dwell
habent they have
sunt they are
amant they love
dormiunt they sleep
adsunt they are present

N.B. They all end in -nt. This personal ending is called the third person plural. It means that there is more than one subject performing the action of the verb.

Here are more plural indicative verbs from lectio secunda:

vocant they call
audiunt they hear
discēdunt they leave
dēlectant they please
rīdent they laugh (at)
sūmunt they pick up
veniunt they come
pōnunt they put
agunt they do, drive

Study these verbs at

Study these verbs at

2. Plural Direct Objects (Accusative Plural):

We know that singular nouns, when functioning as the direct object of a verb, end in -um or -am. The ending -um is used for masculine and neuter nouns, the ending -am is used for feminine nouns.

Now we see plural nouns as the direct objects of verbs. These plural accusatives are -ōs (masculine), -ās (feminine), and -a (neuter).

Rōmānī hortōs amant. Romans love gardens.
Rōmānī rosās amant. Romans love roses.
Rōmānī peristȳla amant. Romans love peristyles.

3. Prepositional Phrases:

A preposition needs a noun to complete its meaning. Many prepositions need a noun in the ablative case, i.e. a noun ending in -ā, -ō, or -īs. In chapter 5 we meet five such prepositions using an ablative noun.

Preposition Translation Example Singular Example Plural
sine without sine pecūniā
without money
sine amīcīs
without friends
in in, on in īnsulā
on the island
in mēnsīs
on the tables
ab, ā away from ab fīliā
away from the daughter
ab ancillīs
away from the slavewomen
cum with cum amīcā
with a friend
cum servīs
with slaves
ex, ē out from ex hortō
out from the garden
ex cubiculīs
out from the bedrooms

4. The Imperative Mood: Plural Commands

The imperative mood of a verb is used to make commands. In chapter 4, we saw singular commands, i.e. telling one person what to do. Now we see plural commands, i.e. ordering more than one person.

So far, we have seen four types of verb. The chart below shows one example of each type.

Singular Command Plural Command Translation
amā amāte love!
tacē tacēte be quiet!
discēde discēdite leave!
venī venīte come!

Simple rule: The singular command ends in a vowel, the plural command adds the ending -te

Small exception:

For singular commands ending in short -e, the corresponding plural command ends in -ite.

5. Pronouns: Is, Ea, Id

You have seen many forms of the pronoun is, ea, id. This pronoun roughly translates to he, she, it.

This pronoun is the hidden difficulty of chapter 5. It is not explained in Grammatica Latīna, but it is covered thoroughly in the margins of the book.

The following chart will help you organize them in your mind.

Case Singular
is ea id eae ea
eum eam id eōs eās ea
eius eius eius eōrum eārum eōrum
eīs eīs eīs
from, with, in, by
eīs eīs eīs

N.B. We have not yet seen the dative case. That's why it's not in bold.

6. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina Chapter 5

Also get a printable list of vocabulary for this chapter.