Lingua Latina 04:
Dominus et Servi

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 4. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the fourth chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

1. Vocative Case:

The Vocative Case is used for direct address, i.e. to call a person by name. (See the verb vocare in chapter 3.)

While the vocative form of a noun is usually the same as the nominative subject form, there are a few exceptions. For now, learn this rule:

For masculine singular nouns ending in -us, when calling that person by name, the ending changes to -e.

Exempla:

A slave speaking to his master cannot call him dominus, but must say domine.

A master answering his slave would not call him servus, but must say serve.

Nominative Singular
Vocative Singular
Mārcus
Mārce
Sextus
Sexte
Quīntus
Quīnte
dominus
domine
servus
serve

ubi est pecunia mea, ō serve improbe?

pecūnia tua abest, ō domine īrāte!

2. Singular Commands - The Imperative Mood:

Verbs in the imperative mood express orders or commands. For now, we have seen only the singular imperative, which ends in the vowel , , -e, or .

Exempla:

dominum vocā, serve!
Call the master, slave!

serve, tacē!
Slave, be quiet!

Quīnte, discēde!
Quintus, go away!

Mārce, venī!
Marcus, come!


3. Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns:

In chapter 3 we saw the possessive adjectives meus and tuus, mine and yours.

Exempla:

ubi est liber meus?
Where is my book?

Ecce fīlia tua!
Look, your daughter!

oppidum meum est magnum.
My town is large.

Simple enough. Meus and tuus are easy. They agree with the noun modified, and they mean my and your. That's why they are called possessive adjectives - they describe a noun and they show possession.

The trouble starts in the third person. In Latin, it's not so easy to say his and hers.

Why?

Because in Latin a reflexive adjective is used to mean his own or her own, while a genitive pronoun is used to mean his or hers meaning someone else's.

Take a look at these sentences:

The Reflexive Adjective
suus, sua, suum
The Genitive Pronoun
eius
puer mātrem suam videt.

The boy sees his mother, i.e. his own mother.
puer mātrem eius videt.

The boy sees his/her mother, i.e. the mother of another person.
vir fēminam suam amat.

The man loves his wife, i.e. his own wife..
vir fēminam eius amat.

The man loves his wife, i.e. another person's wife.
fēmina virum suum amat.

The woman loves her husband, i.e. her own husband.
fēmina virum eius amat.

The woman loves her husband, i.e. another person's husband.
magister exemplum suum intellegit.

The teacher understands his example.
discipulus exemplum eius nōn intellegit.

The student does not understand his example

4. Numbers One to Ten.

The cardinal numbers from one to ten occur in chapter 4. While we're at it learning the cardinals, we may as well see the ordinals, too. Roman numerals stood for both cardinal and ordinal numbers, as the chart below shows.

Roman Numeral
Cardinal Number
Ordinal Number
I
ūnus, -a, -um
prīmus, -a, -um
II
duo, duae, duo
secundus, -a, -um
III
trēs, trēs, tria
tertius, -a, -um
IV
quattuor
quartus, -a, -um
V
quīnque
quīntus, -a, -um
VI
sex
sextus, -a, -um
VII
septem
septimus, -a, -um
VIII
octō
octāvus, -a, -um
IX
novem
nonus, -a, -um
X
decem
decimus, -a, -um

5. Personal Pronouns: Is and Ea

The subject pronouns is and ea mean he and she. You now have seen the following pronouns:

is
he
ea
she
id
it
eum
him
eam
her
id
it
eius
his
eius
hers
eius
its

Well, actually, you haven't seen id, but there it is. Examples of it are coming in chapter 5.

6. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina Chapter 04

Feminine Nouns:
pecūnia
mensa

Masculine Nouns:
sacculus
nummus

Neuter Nouns:
baculum

Adjectives:
vacuus, -a, -um
bonus, -a, -um
nūllus, -a, -um
suus, -a, -um
vocātīvus, -a, -um
imperātīvus, -a, -um
indicātīvus, -a, -um
ūnus, -a, -um
duo, duae, duo
trēs, trēs, tria
quattuor
quīnque
sex
septem
octō
novem
decem
Verbs:
numerat
salūtat
accūsat
imperat
salvē
pāret
tacet
pōnit
sumit
discēdit
Pronouns:
is
eum
ea
eam
Other Words:
eius
quod
rūrsus
tantum

Return to Lingua Latina

Return from Dominus et Servi to Teach and Learn Latin

Subscribe to Teach and Learn Latin Quarterly: Find new lessons and share your own!
Enter Your E-mail Address
Enter Your First Name (optional)
Then

Don't worry — your e-mail address is totally secure.
I promise to use it only to send you Teach and Learn Latin Quarterly.