The basic thing to recognize now about verbs is this: singular verbs end in -t, plural verbs end in -nt. (cf. est, sunt from chapters 1 and 2).
In chapter 3, however, all verbs are singular, ending in -t.
When a verb transfers or directs its action onto an object it is said to be Transitive. A verb that does not have a direct object is said to be intransitive.
Few students understand this concept and fewer care. Most teachers and most books let it slide, too. In easy Latin it is not problematic; in classical literature it is difficult and essential to distinguish transitive verbs from intransitive verbs.
In fact, this is one of the most important and most difficult concepts to master. The trouble starts when verbs that are transitive in English are NOT transitive in Latin (or vice versa).
It is well worth our time to understand the basic difference now. If we do, things will be easier later on.
Did you know that an entire clause can play the role of an adjective? Yes, there are subordinate clauses that do nothing more than give the reader details about a noun in the main sentence.
Such adjectival clauses are called relative clauses. They begin with a relative pronoun, such as who or what, they contain their own verb, and they do nothing more than describe a certain noun in the main sentence. If you remove a relative clause from a sentence you are left with a complete sentence.
Your English teacher might call it a dependent clause.
You have already seen many examples of relative clauses in chapter III of Lingua Latina.
Examples: Notice the following relative clauses in bold.
Nota Bene: The relative adjective in Latin (i.e. quī, quae, quem, quam, cuius) agrees in gender and number with its antecedent. Its antecedent is the noun it helps describe in the main sentence.