Lingua Latina 02: Familia Romana

A supplement for Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, Chapter 2. You may use this page to support your reading and rereading of the second chapter. You may find this page useful when reviewing for tests and quizzes, too.

1. There are three kinds of noun: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter

Gender Singular Plural
Masculine -us
Feminine -a -ae
Neuter -um -a

2. Expressing Possession in Latin: The Genitive Case

Gender Singular Plural
Masculine -ōrum
Feminine -ae -ārum
Neuter -ōrum

Exempla:

  • Pater Marcī = the father of Marcus; Marcus's father
  • Pater Iuliae = the father of Julia; Julia's father
  • Fēminae oppidī = the women of the town; the town's women
  • Pater puerōrum = the father of the boys; the boys' father
  • Pater puellārum = the father of the girls; the girls' father
  • Fēminae oppidōrum = the women of the towns; the towns' women

3. Conjunctions: Certain words are used to join words and phrases together. These are called conjuctions, from coniunctio, meaning a joining together. So far we have seen:

et and; even, also
-que and
sed but

4. Interrogatives: Certain words are used to ask questions. So far we have seen:

-ne? ? (Expects yes/no)
num? ? (Expects no)
ubi? Where? When?
quid? What?
quis? Who? (Masculine)
quae? Who? (Feminine)
cuius? Whose?
quot? How many?

5. Numerī: So far we have seen these numbers:

ūnus, -a, -um one
duo, duae, duo two
trēs, trēs, tria three
centum one hundred
mille one thousand

6. Cēterī, cēterae, cētera is one of those Latin words you have seen and heard thousands of times in English. It means the rest or the remaining. It is most often abbreviated (etc.) from the Latin phrase et cetera, meaning and the rest. Notice that that phrase is neuter plural!

7. Vocabula Nova: Lingua Latina 02

vir
puer
fēmina
puella
familia
pater
māter
fīlius
fīlia
līberī
servus
dominus
ancilla
domina
liber
titulus
pāgina
antīquus
novus
cēterī
meus
tuus
centum
duae
tria
-que
quis?
quae?
quī?
cuius?
quot?
masculīnum
fēminīnum
neutrum
genetīvus

8. A few masculine nouns have a singular form ending in -er.

For example, we have seen puer, boy; vir, man; liber, book.

Here is a new chart containing all noun endings:

Singular
Masculine
Singular
Feminine
Singular
Neuter
Plural
Masculine
Plural
Feminine
Plural
Neuter
Nominative
Subject
-us, -r -a -um -ae -a
Genitive
Possession
-ae -ōrum -ārum -ōrum

9. Showing possession in Latin

The Genitive Case: A noun in the genitive case modifies another noun. E.g. Pater Mārcī est Iūliī, the father of Marcus is Julius.

If we remove the genitive word, we still have a sentence: Pater est Iūlius, the father is Julius. The genitive word, Mārcī, does nothing more than describe Julius. It that sense, a genitive noun is kind of like an adjective, i.e. it modifies a noun.

Possessive Adjectives: In Latin, just as in English, the genitive of a personal pronoun is never used to show possession. We don't say The book of me or The mother of you, we say My book and Your mother.

So in Latin, we see Liber tuus and Familia mea to mean Your book and My household.

The adjectives meus, -a, -um and tuus, -a, -um must agree with the noun they modify in gender, number, and case. For example:

  • māter mea = my mother
  • avunculus tuus = your uncle
  • oppidum meum = my town
  • oppida tua = your towns
  • fīliī meī = my sons (subject) or my son's (possessive)

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